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aData summarize the results from 13 studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

bData summarize the results from 13 studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

cData summarize the results from nine studies (both statistically significant and nonsignificant results included).

Adapted from Steinmetz KA and Potter JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit and cancer prevention: A review. Journal of the American Dietetic

Association 96: 1027-1039.

cancer. Allium species such as garlic (Allium sativum) and onions (Allium cepa) are a rich source of organosulfur compounds, such as the diallyl sulfides. There is epidemiological evidence from the Netherlands Cohort Study (120 852 men and women 5569 years of age) for a strong inverse association between onion consumption and incidence of stomach carcinoma. However, the consumption of leeks and the use of garlic supplements were not associated with stomach carcinoma risk. The relative risk for stomach carcinoma in the highest onion consumption category (>0.5 onions/day) was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.95) compared to the lowest consumption category (no onions/day). However, this study did not support an inverse association between the consumption of onions and leeks and the use of garlic supplements and the incidence of male and female colon and rectal carcinoma. There is only limited epidemiological evidence concerning the beneficial influence of garlic organosulfur compounds on cardiovascular disease.

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