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Compiled from Food Standard Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 6th Sixth Summary edn. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.

Compiled from Food Standard Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 6th Sixth Summary edn. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.

lowering properties. The mechanisms of these reported effects are unclear and they require further investigation and verification. A homolog of pan-tothenate, pantoyl 7-aminobutyrate (hopanthenate), which can act as a pantothenate antagonist, has been used to enhance cognitive function, especially in Alzheimer's disease. It acts on GABA receptors to enhance acetylcholine release and cholinergic function at key sites in the brain.

There is little or no evidence for any toxicity at high intakes: at daily intakes around 10 g there may be mild diarrhea and gastrointestinal disturbance, but no other symptoms have been described. Pan-tothenate has been prescribed for various chronic disorders, but is not known to be useful in high doses.

See also: Cofactors: Organic. Energy: Metabolism. Fatty Acids: Metabolism. Lactation: Dietary

Requirements. Lipids: Chemistry and Classification. Nutritional Assessment: Biochemical Indices.

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