Figure 2 Nutrient intakes from the total diet and fortified foods among 2-13-year-old German children in 1996. Source of data: Sichert-Hellert W, Kersting M, Alexy U, and Manz F (2000) Ten-year trends in vitamin and mineral intake from fortified food in German children and adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54(1): 81-86.

A, and folate intakes, 40-50% of vitamin C, E, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin intakes, and up to 80% of vitamin B6 intake among this population group.

Calcium fortification of flour is estimated to have supplied up to 30% of the total calcium intake in Danish adults and 13% of total calcium intake in adolescents in Britain. A Swedish multicenter study, 1980-81, on food habits and nutrient intake in children aged 1-15 years revealed that enriched low-fat milk and margarine are important food sources of vitamin A in this population group. Vitamin D-for-tified margarine is estimated to provide up to 48% of the total vitamin D intake among Australian men and women.

While government-initiated fortification of foods can greatly change the nutritional profile of the food supply, the contribution of foods voluntarily fortified by industry should also be considered. In the US, such fortified foods are reported to increase intakes of several nutrients, some of which are already adequately provided by nonfortified foods and standardized enriched foods (Table 3). Among voluntarily fortified foods, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are the most significant food category, accounting for the top food source of many vitamins and minerals in several countries, including the US, UK, France, and Spain. Fortified juices and beverages appear to be another substantial contributor, primarily for intakes of vitamins C and D. Fortified breakfast cereals are associated with higher intakes

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