Interrelated Levels of the System

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Before we go on to consider the individual systems underpinning the expression of appetite it is useful to try and understand how neural, nutritional, and psychological events interact before, during, and after a meal. The biopsychological system underlying the expression of appetite can be conceptualized as having three domains (Figure 2):

1. Psychological events (e.g., subjective sensations of hunger, satiety, hedonics, and cravings) accompanying observable behavioral operations (meal intake, snacking behavior, food choice) and their measurable consequences (energy intake and macronutrient composition of food consumed).

2. Peripheral physiology and metabolic events related to the effect of absorbed nutrients and their utilization or subsequent conversion for storage (i.e., the changes in the body due to either energy intake and/or energy deficit). 3. Neurochemical (classic neurotransmitters, neuro-peptides, and hormones) and metabolic interactions within the CNS (i.e., how various signals of the body's energy status are detected in the brain).

The expression of appetite reflects the synchronous operation of events and processes in all three domains.

5-HT2c MC-4 CRF CART Leptin

Cephalic phase

5-HT2c MC-4 CRF CART Leptin

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