Today, approximately 70% of the world's salt is iodised, compared to just 10% in 1990, and therefore iodine supplementation programs are greatly reduced. Until universal salt iodization is guaranteed in the third of the world in which iodized salt is not yet available, especially in remote populations in which goiter is endemic, supplements should be used during pregnancy and early childhood. In the past, it was common to provide annual intramuscular injections of iodized oil to women of reproductive age in order to ensure iodine status during the first months of pregnancy when the risk of cretinism is greatest. In more recent years, oral iodized oil capsules have proven to be as efficacious and more effective in controlling iodine deficiency in both women of reproductive age and schoolchildren. Oral iodine supplements initially based on expensive poppy seed oil have since been replaced by cheaper rapeseed and peanut oil preparations, which are equally effective.
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