Demands for iron are increased by approximately 700-800 mg during pregnancy and most of this is needed during the last two trimesters. Because the risk of becoming anemic is greater during pregnancy and there is an increased risk of a compromised pregnancy outcome for anemic women (including lower birth weight and less neonatal iron stores), most recommendations in the United States advise all pregnant women with a well-balanced diet take a supplement of 30 mg of ferrous iron daily starting at their first prenatal visit. If iron deficiency anemia is detected by routine testing, the recommendation is that 60-120 mg of ferrous iron be given in divided doses throughout the day. The World Health Organization recommends 60mg/day throughout pregnancy (plus 400 mg folic acid) because of the higher prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in most low-income countries throughout the world.

Gastrointestinal side effects, mainly heartburn, nausea, upper abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation, increase with high iron doses and contribute to poor compliance with taking daily iron supplements. Supplements of 15 mg of zinc and 2 mg of copper daily are also recommended for pregnant women taking >30 mg iron per day because iron can interfere with the absorption of other minerals if given as a supplement without food. It is therefore important not to exceed recommended intakes of iron during pregnancy. Research suggests that it may be as effective to consume the recommended intakes once per week as it is to take them daily because daily iron supplements gradually block the absorption of subsequent doses.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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