K

Capillary

Fructose

Primary active transport

Fructose

Fructose

Capillary

Capillary

Figure 4 Carbohydrate absorption mechanisms. (Left) Secondary active transport: Glucose and galactose are absorbed using Na+ cotransport systems. Sodium ions are removed using the (Na+-K+)-ATPase pump (primary active transport). (Right) Facilitated diffusion: Fructose absorption is passive but relies on a carrier molecule. Solid arrow, movement against concentration gradient; broken arrow, diffusion down concentration gradient; ATP, ATP-dependent pump; C, carrier molecule.

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