The kidneys have two major roles in acid-base homeostasis: the recovery of filtered bicarbonate and generation of new bicarbonate; and the excretion of fixed acid (Figures 1 and 2; eqn [5]). Blood is filtered in the glomeruli and the glomerular filtrate is subsequently modified in the renal tubules so that the final urine volume is less than 1% of the glomerular filtrate volume. Plasma bicarbonate concentration is approximately 25mmoll~1 and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is 100mlmin~1, thus 3600 mmol of bicarbonate must be reabsorbed daily.

Tubular fluid

Tubular cell

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