* risk of induction

* risk of obstetric complications

Figure 5 The normal distribution of birth weights and relative risks associated with babies that are small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and those subjected to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and the relationship to placental insufficiency.

lower concentration in the fetal circulation (Se, Cu, Ba), some are higher (Ca, Zn, Be, Rb), and some are about the same (Co, Mg, Mo, Sn, Bi, Cd, Cs, La, Li, Pb). Iron is particularly important during pregnancy and its concentration in the fetal venous blood leaving the placenta is almost 3 times that of the maternal serum. Iron is transported in the serum on the transport protein transferrin and, like the fats and fat-soluble vitamins, its rate of transfer may be influenced by the availability of free binding sites.

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