Macronutrient Balance Energy Balance and Storage

Since macronutrients (carbohydrate, fat, protein, and alcohol) are the sources of energy, it is logical to consider energy balance and macronutrient balance together as the opposite side of the same coin.

There is a direct relationship between energy balance and macronutrient balance, and the sum of individual substrate balance (expressed as energy) must be equivalent to the overall energy balance. Thus:

carbohydrate balance exogenous carbohydrate — carbohydrate oxidation protein balance exogenous protein — protein oxidation lipid balance = exogenous lipid — lipid oxidation

It follows that A substrate balance = AE balance. Fat balance is closely related to energy balance (Figure 6).

Indirect calorimetry also allows computation of the nutrient oxidation rates in the whole body. An index of protein oxidation is obtained from the total

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