Noael Loael

^ risk curve

Increasing Intake->

Figure 8 Identifying the hazard: dose-response.

processed foods). The absence of surveys that link intake with health or quantifiable and validated disease indicators makes it almost impossible to determine risk of inadequacy as well as risk of excess, particularly in vulnerable groups, without very expensive laboratory tests and clinical observation.

Lack of data or nutrient content in a variety of foodstuffs, as well as lack of valid intake data, decreases the utility of subsequent estimates of inadequacy or exposure. An issue that continues to hamper reliable estimates of intake is selective underreporting and overreporting of intakes of specific foods or portion sizes by responders in surveys, usually related to foods known to be associated with causation of disease in the first case (underreporting) or considered more healthy in the second (overreporting). Although conducting large-scale surveys is costly and highly labor-intensive, poor collection of intake data and lack of replicate food composition information available to estimate intakes continue to hamper attempts to improve accuracy of the estimates. Much work is currently under way to increase the ability for such surveys to estimate intakes.

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