Nutrient Requirements

About every 10 years, the Institute of Medicine convenes several committees of nutrition scientists to review the scientific literature and recommend levels of daily dietary nutrients that would keep 95% of the population from developing deficiencies.

In the past, the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) or recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) concentrated on ensuring that nutrient deficiencies were minimized by specifying lower limits of intakes. However, it is now clear that many Western diets provide too much of some nutrients such as total calories, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats, and salt. Therefore, recent editions of DRIs (see Table 1 to 5) have

Table 1 Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes

Lifestage Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin Be Folate Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Biotin Choline group fag day-1) (mgday-1) fag day-1) fag day-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) (mg/day-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) fag day-1) fag day-1) Acid fag day-1) fag day-1)

Males

9-13 years 600 45

14-18 years 900 75

19-30 years 900 90 Females

9-13 years 600 45

14-18 years 700 65

19-30 years 700 75

5" 15 120"

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, The National Academies. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

This table (taken from the DRI reports, see http://www.nap.edu) presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (Als) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and Als may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97-98%) individuals in a group. For healthy breast-fed infants, the Al is the mean intake. The Al for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

Table 2 Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes

Life stage

Calcium

Chromium

Copper

Fluoride

Iodine

Iron

Magnesium

Manganese

Molybdenum

Phosphorus

Selenium

Zinc

group

(mgday-1)

(ßgday-1)

(fig day-1)

(mgday-1)

(fig day-1)

(mgday-1)

(mgday-1)

(mgday-1)

(ßgday-1)

(mgday-1)

(ßgday-1)

(mgday-1)

Males

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