Physiological and Pharmacological Properties

Because the physiological and pharmacological properties of caffeine represent the cumulative effects of not only the parent compound but also its metabolites, it is quite possible that effects attributed to caffeine per se are in fact mediated by one or more of its metabolites. It must also be noted that most of the knowledge about caffeine's effects has been derived from acute administration to fasted subjects submitted to a period of caffeine abstinence in order to ensure low plasma caffeine concentrations. It is thus difficult to extrapolate the results to the usual pattern of caffeine consumption in which most people consume it at different intervals throughout the day and over periods of years.

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