Protein synthesis represents the major route of disposal of amino acids. Amino acids are activated by binding to specific molecules of transfer RNA and assembled by ribosomes into a sequence that has been specified by messenger RNA, which in turn has been transcribed from the DNA template. Peptide bonds are then formed between adjacent amino acids. Once the polypeptide chain has been completed, the subsequent folding, posttranslational amino acid modifications, and protein packaging are all determined by the primary sequence of amino acids. The rate of protein synthesis is controlled by the rate of transcription of specific genes, the number and state of aggregation of ribosomes, and modulation of the rate of initiation of peptide synthesis.
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