Following an appropriate physiological or pathological stimulus, AA is released from cell membrane phospholipids by one of the many forms of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which is generally regarded as the rate-limiting step in eicosanoid synthesis (Figure 2). There are two major biosynthetic pathways: the cyclooxygenase (COX/PGH synthase) pathway, which synthesizes the PGs and TXs; and the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway, which synthesizes the LTs, HETEs, and lipoxins. The predominant cellular origins of PG and LT synthesis, their receptors, and their major physiological activities are summarized in Table 1.

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