The Body Glucose Pool

The body of an adult subject seldom contains less than 8g, or more than 28 g, of glucose at any one time (corresponding to blood glucose concentrations of 3.5-10 mmoll-1), despite enormous fluctuations in demand and supply. This quantity of glucose can be considered as constituting a hypothetical body pool (Figure 1) confined within a glucose space equal in volume to the combined water in blood and the interstitial fluid (i.e., approximately 35% of total body water).

Glucose enters the cells by facilitated transport utilizing one or more of the genetically determined glucose transporter proteins that have been identified, depending on the tissue and which proteins are inducible. Upon entering a cell, glucose is immediately phosphorylated and consequently removed from the glucose pool.

Although its subsequent conversion into carbon dioxide and water or other metabolites (most notably glycogen, glycerol, fatty acids, and the glyco-moieties of mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins) is the only way that glucose ordinarily leaves the glucose pool, its loss in the urine may become a major factor in diabetes mellitus. Glucose enters the glucose pool from food in the intestine after a meal via the portal vein or, in the postabsorptive subject, by release of glucose from preformed glycogen or molecules newly synthesized by liver cells into the hepatic veins.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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