The endogenous pathway for cholesterol transport focuses on the liver with the synthesis and secretion of VLDL particles. Cholesterol in these triacylgly-cerol-rich particles comes from multiple sources: endogenous synthesis, diet, and plasma lipoproteins. Catabolism of VLDL by LPL leads to formation of intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), which can either be taken up by the liver or undergo further metabolism to form LDL. Low-density lipoproteins contain apo-B100 and account for 60-80% of the plasma cholesterol in most individuals. During lipo-lysis of VLDL triacylglycerol, the lipoproteins containing apo-B become enriched with cholesteryl ester through the plasma CETP-catalyzed net transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL. This process, called reverse cholesterol transport, moves cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues to HDL to VLDL-IDL-LDL and eventual uptake by the liver.
Approximately 70% of the LDL degraded each day is degraded by the hepatic LDL receptor pathway.
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