Vitamin B12

The role of vitamin Bi2 in NTDs is of particular interest because of the close metabolic relationship between this nutrient and folate. The results of some studies of maternal levels of serum vitamin B12 in NTD pregnancies are shown in Table 5. As for folate, lower levels of vitamin B12 are generally seen in affected pregnancies, especially in the first trimester. Studies based on amniotic fluid have

Table 3 Serum folic acid (SFA) and central nervous system defects

Study

No. of pregnancies

Difference

Statistical significance

Blood taken at antenatal booking

Hall etal. (1977)

Molloy etal. (1985) Kirke etal. (1993)

Blood taken in first trimester

Smithells etal. (1976)

Mills etal. (1992) Wald et al. (1996) All women

(antenatal booking and first trimester)

Blood taken in second trimester

Economides et al. (1992)

Blood taken after delivery

Yates et al. (1987) Bower and Stanley (1989) Wild etal. (1993) All women (after delivery)

Affected

Unaffecteda

Affected

Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

Affected Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

Affected

Unaffected

11 >1000 32 384 81 247

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