Vitamins and Minerals

The requirements for vitamins and essential trace minerals usually can be easily met in the average patient with an uncomplicated postoperative course. Therefore, vitamins are usually not given in the absence of preoperative deficiencies (Table 4). Patients maintained on elemental diets or parenteral hyperalimentation require complete vitamin and mineral supplementation. Commercial enteral diets contain varying amounts of essential minerals and vitamins. It is necessary to ensure that adequate replacement is available in the diet or by supplementation. Numerous commercial vitamin preparations are available for intravenous or intramuscular use, although most do not contain vitamin K and some do not contain vitamin B12 or folic

Table 4 Common manifestations of vitamin and mineral deficiencies in adults


Major manifestations of deficiencies


Gaining Weight 101

Gaining Weight 101

Find out why long exhausting workouts may do more harm than good. Most of the body-building workout and diet regimens out there are designed for the guys that gain muscle and fat easily. They focus on eating less and working out more in order to cut the excess fat from their bodies while adding needed muscle tone.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment