Vitamins and Minerals

The requirements for vitamins and essential trace minerals usually can be easily met in the average patient with an uncomplicated postoperative course. Therefore, vitamins are usually not given in the absence of preoperative deficiencies (Table 4). Patients maintained on elemental diets or parenteral hyperalimentation require complete vitamin and mineral supplementation. Commercial enteral diets contain varying amounts of essential minerals and vitamins. It is necessary to ensure that adequate replacement is available in the diet or by supplementation. Numerous commercial vitamin preparations are available for intravenous or intramuscular use, although most do not contain vitamin K and some do not contain vitamin B12 or folic

Table 4 Common manifestations of vitamin and mineral deficiencies in adults

Deficiency

Major manifestations of deficiencies

Vitamin

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