Water and Electrolytes

The US-Canada recommended intake of water for pregnant women is based on median intake from a large national survey in the United States. The AI of 3 l/day is anticipated to come from foods (0.7l) and beverages (2.31). No UL was set because individuals stop drinking once their intake is adequate.

The AI for sodium in pregnancy is 1500mg/day based on an intake level to cover daily losses, provide adequate intakes of other nutrients, and maintain normal function. The UL of 2300 mg/day is based on the adverse effects of higher intakes on blood pressure in susceptible members of the population.

The AI for potassium in pregnancy (4.7g/day) is set at a level that will lower blood pressure, reduce the extent of salt sensitivity, and minimize the risk of kidney stones. There is no evidence that adverse effects of potassium are seen with high intakes from food and no UL was set, but potassium supplements can cause high blood potassium in some chronic diseases, such as renal disease and type 1 diabetes.

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