Wheat

World wheat production is nearly 600 million tonnes annually (Table 1). Worldwide, over 70% of the wheat supply is used for food, and it is the major dietary cereal in all regions except Asia and China (Table 2). Consumption levels are highest in western Asia (Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkey) and North Africa (Algeria and Tunisia), where supplies for food use exceed 500 g day-1 per person. Although other species are grown in some regions, the major species are common or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum). Of these two species, common wheat accounts for about 95% of total production. Common wheat can be grown across widely diverse geographical regions including subtropical, warm temperate, and cool temperate climates, where it can withstand frosts. There is an extensive range of genotypes, varying in agronomic adaptability and grain quality. Quality is usually assessed in terms of suitability for milling and baking. The whole grain comprises about 82% endosperm and 18% bran. The aim of milling white flour is to separate the starchy endosperm from the darker coarser bran. Wheat bran is used as a fiber source in some foodstuffs including ready-to-eat cereals. The yield of white flour will depend on milling efficiency, but extraction rates of 75-81% are usually achieved. Wheat grains are classified as hard or soft and as strong or weak. The terms hard and soft indicate milling quality; hard wheats have superior milling characteristics. The terms strong and weak refer to bread-baking quality. Strong flours yield bread with a large loaf volume and good crumb structure. The quantity and quality of the viscoelastic gluten proteins are important for bread quality. Weak flours produce poor bread products but can be blended with strong flours in bread making or used to make other products. Durum wheat is hard and vitreous. It is used almost exclusively for the production of pasta in Europe, the Americas, and elsewhere, but in the Middle East and North Africa 85% of durum wheat is used to produce breads, couscous, and other non-pasta products.

Keep Your Weight In Check During The Holidays

Keep Your Weight In Check During The Holidays

A time for giving and receiving, getting closer with the ones we love and marking the end of another year and all the eating also. We eat because the food is yummy and plentiful but we don't usually count calories at this time of year. This book will help you do just this.

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