Surviving World War III

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

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Biological Warfare Present Future and Past

Concerns about bioterrorists' attacks recently have heightened, for good reason. Outbreaks of anthrax disease and bacterial exposure have placed the United States and portions of Europe on high alert. The alarm has sounded to include other, even more deadly pathogens such as the smallpox virus that possibly are being prepared for attacks on the public. The present status of high alert prompts the same question that goes back to World War I and then repeated at times during subsequent wars and conflicts Are nations or terrorist groups planning to engage in biological or chemical warfare While no large-scale offensive attack has occurred as yet (there are recorded or suspected contained incidents), the very question led to stock-piling and testing by some countries purportedly as defensive moves. The very grave future threat that these weapons of mass mortality pose could lead to loss of life that far exceeds that from prior use of conventional, or even until now, nuclear warfare....

The Soviet Union in World War II

In the Soviet Union during World War II desperate times 800,000 women reportedly made up at peak about 8 of Soviet forces. Most were medical workers but a few thousand were combatants anti-aircraft gunners, pilots, snipers, and infantrywomen. War propaganda exaggerated women's exploits to cheer on a devastated society and shame men into fighting harder. But overall, the evidence indicates that the women fought about as well as the men. Nonetheless, as soon as circumstances permitted, women were purged from the Red Army. Even the official estimates make women combatants at their peak fewer than 1 of Soviet combat forces (Goldstein, 2001, pp. 64-72).

Cultural Overview

Largely isolated in segregated ethnic neighborhoods in urban America, Chinese Americans formed many associations based on kinship, native places, and economic and political interests. Two most important immigrant organizations are clan and district associations. These associations had a great impact on the day-to-day lives of the Chinese Americans before World War II. Hierarchically above the clan and district associations was the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, which provided leadership for the entire community. Another important organization, the Chinese American Citizens Alliance (CACA), was organized by Chinese Americans who were born in the United States. During World War II, a large number of Chinese American men and women served in the U.S. military or found employment in defense industries. For the first Legislation after the war helped the growth of Chinese American families. The 1945 War Brides Act allowed the admission of alien dependents of World War II...

Gender Roles in Economics

Political-economic changes since World War II, including the emergence of permanent centralized settlements, have increasingly altered the patterns of livelihood noted above. While all-female teams continue to operate much as they have in the past, the mixed male-female teams have declined in importance over the past several decades as women and school-age children are tied increasingly to new services, schools, and other institutions in centralized settlements. Hunts for large game and commercial furbearers are now conducted increasingly by young and middle-aged males who, in many cases, travel longer distances and endure longer periods of separation from their family households than in any previous historical period. Chipewyan have adapted to the demands of the modern world by constructing gender roles that are increasingly divergent and specialized. Stated another way, men have become far-ranging logis-tically organized collectors, while women have become foragers who operate on a...

Genetic Engineering and Society

Other risks exist in the uses of biotechnology. From the late nineteenth century until World War II, a school of thought called eugenics suggested that the methods of genetics should be turned to improving the human gene pool. This idea led to forced sterilization first, of various criminal populations, and eventually, of alcoholics and epileptics. The policies were used to restrict immigration of certain Asian and European populations that were termed genetically inferior. Eugenics had its ultimate expression when it provided the scientific basis for the racial policies of the Nazis before and during World War II. Where the capability exists, so will the temptation. Will parents seek to amplify the gene for human growth hormone in their offspring so that their children could become heftier football linemen or taller basketball players The ability to select the gender of one's offspring by amniocentesis and abortion is already causing problems in some cultures.

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Bimbi (1993) suggests that women born after World War II have embraced a different model of female identity than that of their mothers or grandmothers. The youngest group of women in her research felt that having children or obtaining educational qualifications were rights rather than duties or privileges. In general, attitudes to the roles of men and women in the family and to sexuality have changed very significantly and show clear departures from the position of the Catholic Church. This was evident in the public support for legislation facilitating divorce and abortion in the 1970s and for the changes in family law that have taken place since then. Responding to changes in the attitudes of the public and to organized public pressure, government has granted men and women greater equality not only in public life but in the private domain as well. Changes have taken place not only in legislation but in everyday practice. There have been shifts in parenting patterns, and the value...

Oxygen Carrying Resuscitation Fluids

Blood remains, from a physiologic perspective, the ideal resuscitation agent, but there are substantial practical limitations to its routine use. Although the potential for disease transmission has been significantly reduced by modern donor screening techniques, it has not been completely eliminated. 17 Other concerns include the limited availability of blood products the cost of collection, storage and transfusion a limited shelf-life and the existence of religious prohibitions against the transfusion of blood products. These issues have led researchers to search for alternative agents that can safely and effectively deliver oxygen to the cells. 18 To date the use of stoma-free hemoglobin as well as (PHP) conjugate represent examples of hemoglobin-based substitutes under investigation. Hemoglobin solutions became of interest during World War II owing to practical difficulties of blood storage and compatibility testing on the battlefield. Their use was ultimately rejected due to their...

Pyrogen Test Development

The knowledge that fevers resulting after an injection were actually caused by bacterial by-products has enabled hospital pharmacies and drug companies to develop production methods to prevent pyrogen contamination of their intravenous solutions. By the early 1930s, saline and dextrose large-volume parenterals (LVP) were available for the first time from commercial manufacturers. The major advantage advertised for these products was a label claim of nonpyrogeni-city. Assurance of nonpyrogenicity inevitably resulted from a finished product lot quality control pyrogen assay based on the rabbit test developed by Seibert and other researchers. World War II produced a heavy demand for LVP therapy and drew attention to the need for an official United States Pharmacopeia (USP)

Determination of Stature

Heel Pad Thickness Measurement Xray

Extensive research on World War II and Korean War casualties (32) has enabled investigators to develop methods of estimating stature based on measurements of long bones. The length of the femur is the most reliable basis for calculating stature (28). The tibia is also useful, but there has been some controversy over the accuracy of tibial measurements, particularly the most appropriate location of the more distal measuring point. Apparently, the plafond of the tibia is the preferred site of measurement rather than the tip of the medial malleolus (33). The tables and equations furnished to estimate stature from long-bone measurements are based on direct measurements of defleshed or skeletonized specimens (Table 2). However, measurements from radiographs can be

Historical Background

Outbreaks of toxicoses associated with the ingestion of moldy foods and feeds by humans and animals have also been recorded in last century. Deaths of livestock were reported earlier from consumption of moldy corn in feed of horses in Illinois, Russia and swine in Southeastern United States (Christiansen and Kauffman 1969) in the 1930s. A well-documented example is the disease called alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA) that resulted in more than 5000 deaths in humans in the Orenberg district of the USSR during World War II, and the cause of later was found to be trichothecene mycotoxins. Modern myco-toxicology was not developed until the discovery of aflatoxins in the early 1960s as the causative agent in the peanut meal causing the Turkey X disease that killed more than 10,000 turkeys fed with the contaminated meal. Because aflatoxins are a series of highly potent carcinogens produced by commonly occurring Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, research has focused new attention on...

Microwave Science And Technology

Interest in microwave processing began shortly after World War II with the introduction of the first microwave oven by the Raytheon Co. (Waltham, Mass.) a manufacturer of magnetrons for radar. The first U.S. patent granted to Raytheon Co., which claimed the novelty of microwave cooking, was illustrated with a food product moving on a conveyor belt past a microwave source (1). Many other patents followed, research was carried out on the effects of microwave energy on food materials, microwave cooking technology was developed, and eventually a consumer microwave oven sales boom occurred so that today this appliance is commonplace in most homes in the United States and a similar trend is taking place in most of the developed countries of the world. Microwave energy use in food processing is showing a similar growth trend, although at a much more modest rate.

Bioethics Perspective I Health Disparities

Despite some improvement over the years, the health gaps persevere and in some instances have gotten worse as the twenty-first century began. In 1970 infant mortality in blacks was twice that of whites at the beginning of the twenty-first century, black infant mortality is still twice that of whites. In 1970 deaths due to asthma were about three times higher in blacks at the beginning of the twenty-first century, deaths due to asthma have increased They are now five times higher than in whites (Centers for Disease Control, 1996). Researchers Robert Levine and his colleagues report that the disparities have not improved since the end of World War II, despite decades of funding for health-related programs.

Poultry Meat From Avian Species

In 1998 there were almost 9 billion meat-producing farm animals commercially raised on U.S. farms (Table 1). Many other animals were grown as specialty items for food, sport, and pleasure, mostly in low volume. Surprisingly, about 98 of all farm animals are birds. However, by amount of meat produced (in tons) and by revenue (in dollars), beef is still king, not only in the United States but also worldwide. Yet more people eat lamb, mutton, and sheep than any other animal flesh. The change of consumer preferences in meat consumption started slowly in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century and accelerated rapidly toward its end. The doubling of the American population since World War II from 132.1 million in 1940 to 269 million in 1998 strongly fueled the demand for poultry, resulting in the explosive growth in poultry production, meat consumption, and the emergence of a highly efficient vertically integrated poultry industry. Dramatic changes in lifestyle further...

Scientific And Technical Achievements

Many Canadian scientists in industry, universities, and government have made major contributions in the area of food science. The results of many of the early commercial successes are still having positive effects on the Canadian economy. William Heeney made a tremendous contribution with regard to the commercialization of frozen foods. His early work in frozen food technology is still as current today as he foresaw it before World War II. Joe Yarem, with the assistance of Percy Gittelman, commercialized the processing of mechanically deboned poultry meat in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This technical development currently generates in excess of 60 million in sales worldwide, in addition to several international joint ventures.

D 1950s The Dawn of Behavior Therapy across Three Continents

Behavior therapy emerged on the psychotherapeutic scene in the early 1950s as an applied extension of experimental psychology, which was still predominantly behavioristic in its approach. Applied psychology, on the other hand, was dominated largely by psychiatrists, and a disease model of psychopathology and human suffering. According to this model, abnormal behavior was considered symptomatic of an underlying mental illness, or a psychic disturbance or personality conflict similar to a medical disease. Clinical psychology, as a profession, was a newcomer having only been recognized formally in 1949 in the years shortly following World War II. Though early clinical psychologists, trained as they were within the scientist-practitioner model set forth by the delegation at the 1949 Conference in Boulder, Colorado, were poised to establish behaviorism in mental health care, and hence what came to be known as behavior therapy, they did not. Newly trained clinical psychologists during this...

Courtship and Marriage

Owing to financial hardship, the marriage rate in Ukraine continues to fall, and is currently at its lowest since the end of World War II. The divorce rate is high in 2000, 5.5 of the population registered marriages while 4 registered divorces (Dovzhenko, Nour, & Iaremenko, 2002). Men and women make their own decisions about whom and when to marry. A range of considerations go into a couple's marriage decision, the most important being mutual feelings of love and attraction, and economic considerations. While love probably remains the major basis for courtship and marriage, the possibility of improving one's economic position through the marriage union is also a factor, especially for women. There is no legal marriage for same-sex couples.

Polystichum setiferum Soft shield fern

The development in the 1830s of the Wardian case, a simple to extravagantly elaborate terrarium-like structure, offered plants protection from the suffocating pollution of Victorian England and gave ferns a new and elevated status. Thus began the collecting epidemic know as the Victorian Fern Craze. In short, ferns were trendy and in high demand. Varieties with slight or major irregularities were especially prized, collected, and either proudly displayed or sold for a tidy sum. Thus Polystichum setiferum, the common native, yielded at one time some 366 of these varieties. I will not go into them all here Some have persisted through time (although, regrettably, a private collection of prizes went unrecognized and was torch flamed at the end of World War II to make way for a vegetable garden). Cultivars have an ardent group of fans, especially in Britain and as this goes to press the British Pteridological Society has just published an excellent and helpful compilation, Polystichum...

Tranquilizer Rescinnamine

Cinchona alkaloids, derived from the dried stem or root bark of various Cinchona species, include quinine and quinidine. These alkaloids are bitter tasting white crystalline solids, sparingly soluble in water. Quinine is toxic to many bacteria and other unicellular organisms and was the only specific antimalarial remedy until the Second World War. It is a local anesthetic of considerable duration. Quinine is commonly used as the sulfate and dihydro-chloride. Quinidine, produced by the isomerization of quinine or found in Cuprea bark, is more effective on cardiac muscle than quinine and is used to prevent or abolish certain cardiac arrhythmias.

Other Selected Mycotoxins

Other than OA, Penicillia produce many mycotoxins with diverse toxic effects. Cyclochlorotine, luteoskyrin (LS), and rugulosin (RS) have long been considered to be possibly involved in the yellow rice disease during the Second World War. They are hepatotoxins and also produce hepatomas in test animals. However, incidents of food contamination with these toxins have not been well documented. Several other mycotoxins, including patulin (PT, Figure 6), penicillic acid (PA, Figure 7), citrinin (CT), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, Figure 8), citreoviridin, and xanthomegnin, which are produced primarily by several species of Penicillia, have attracted some attention because of their frequent occurrence in foods. PT and PA are produced by many species in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Byssochlamys nivea also produces PT (Tournas 1994). Both toxins are hepatotoxic and

Background And Historical Significance

Listeria monocytogenes was first described during the 1910s and 1920s, and in 1924 the first reported human case involved a soldier inflicted with meningitis during World War I (Ryser and Marth, 1999). Foodborne transmission was not recognized until 1981, when the first confirmed foodborne outbreak occurred in Nova Scotia, Canada (Doyle et al., 1997). Because of its high case mortality rate, listeriosis has emerged as a major foodborne disease concern to the food industry as well as health and regulatory agencies. Current estimates suggest that L. monocytogenes is responsible for approximately 2500 cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually, with an estimated case fatality rate in excess of 0.2 (Mead et al., 1999).

Their Nature and Extent

Muslim women in the First Crusade (p. 31), Japanese concentration camp rape and camp brothels in World War II (p. 62), and the rape and murder of women by U.S. soldiers in Vietnam (p. 103). Military brothels servicing American soldiers in Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam created an image of Southeast Asia as a sex capital (Perpinan, 1994). Upon occupying Tibet in 1949, Chinese soldiers raped and impregnated Tibetan women as a means of ethnic cleansing and humiliation for Tibetan men (Campaign Free Tibet, 1994). Serbian soldiers did the same, raping Bosnian Muslim women and denying them abortions so they might give birth to little Chetniks (Drakulic, 1994, p. 180).

Historical Overview

Between 1930 and 1940, mental health treatment providers largely abandoned the assumption that manic-depression and most other disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, developed from neurobio-logical abnormalities. Following World War II and until the early 1980s, mental health theory and treatment were mostly guided by psychoanalytic concepts proposed by Freud and his followers. Whereas psychoanalytic theory agreed that biological components played a role in affective disorders, practitioners insisted that early childhood parental or other environmental conflicts usually explained the onset and recurrence of manic-depressive episodes. As a result, it was thought that manic-depressive symptoms would resolve if individuals gained insight into their unconscious anger or other hidden emotional conflicts. Even though psychoanalysis and other forms of psychotherapy offered little help for most patients with severe manic-depressive problems, talk therapies nonetheless became the...

The History of Diverticular Disease

The recognition of the size of the problem of diverticular disease in medicine was revealed once radiology advanced and could show that diverticula were not unusual postmortem and barium studies were undertaken to demonstrate this. On the other side of the Atlantic, Mayo (1930) estimated that 5 of patients over the age of 40 years would demonstrate diverticula in their colons. This figure concurs with current postmortem studies undertaken in both Europe and America. Up until World War II, resection of the colon carried a high mortality rate of up to 10 . As a result of this high mortality rate, doctors felt that there should be preventive ways to stop diverticula of the bowel along with their complications and surgery. Believing that roughage could irritate the colon, Spriggs and Marxer (1925) believed that the bowel should be cleansed and there should be plenty of vegetables and fruit in the diet, but that any irritants from fruit and vegetables such as pips, stalks, pith and tough...

The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

How did the nutrient recommendations originate Concerned with the need to provide proper nutrition for newly drafted World War II soldiers, many of whom were undernourished, the Department of Defense commissioned the first set of nutrient recommendations (called the Recommended Dietary Allowances) in 1941. Since then, nutrient recommendations

Overview of the Culture

This means that, following a massive population crash during the 16th-19th and early 20th century time span, the Shipibo experienced a rapid recovery with population growth rates that exceeded precontact rates. The most rapid population growth of the Shipibo population occurred in the years immediately following World War II.

Tian P S Oei and Genevieve Dingle

Modern psychotherapy has its roots in Europe, and it was not until after the Second World War that the United States began to lead this field. During this period, psychotherapy flourished and grew at an enormous rate. Behavior therapy, and later cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), led the earlier growth and in 1974 when Michael Mahoney published his first book in cognitive behavior therapy, the term CBT became entrenched.

History of food irradiation

Geschichte Des Getriebes

As noted in Table 18.1, the benefits of ionizing radiation have been known since 1905. In addition to its potential to irradiation can be used to eliminate pests such as the screw worm fly, which preys on cattle, the Mediterranean fruit fly, and the tsetse fly, by the release of sterile insects. Worries about nuclear weapons, combinedwithanantiprogressideology, began to hinder food irradiation research afterthe war. Althoughthere wasatthat time an adequate supply of gamma rays, the high-energy, short-wavelength rays given off by radionuclides, the antitechnology factionconvincedtheCongressto control the development of nuclear technology for treating foods.

The Magic Bullet versus the Bulletproof Vest Penicillin and Lactamase

Because peptidoglycans are unique to bacterial cell walls, with no known homologous structures in mammals, the enzymes responsible for their synthesis are ideal targets for antibiotic action. Antibiotics that hit specific bacterial targets are sometimes called magic bullets. Penicillin and its many synthetic analogs have been used to treat bacterial infections since these drugs came into wide application in World War II.

Protection as Well as Education

At the same time that they provide beneficial genetic counseling to patients and their families, professionals providing such a service must have a full understanding of the dangers of eugenics. The abuse of genetic information has led to many atrocities in the past. In Germany, the Nazis murdered nearly 7 million genetically defective people during World War II and forcibly sterilized nearly half a million others, all in the name of eugenics a policy that calls for the systematic elimination of unfit members of the population. The United States also has a checkered past with respect to eugenics. In the early twentieth century, the United States passed laws allowing sterilization of the mentally handicapped and limiting the number of genetically inferior ethnic groups that were allowed to immigrate.

Axoplasmic Transport

Axoplasmic Transport

Early work on axon transport took place in the 1940s, in part motivated by interest in axon regeneration during World War II. The phenomenon was simply but convincingly demonstrated by the accumulation of an irregular bulge of material proximal to a ligature placed around a single axon. When the constriction was removed, the accumulated material continued down the axon at a rate of about 1.0 mm day. Fast transport (i.e., at rates of 50-400 mm day) was demonstrated several decades later by the uptake of radioactively labeled amino acids by the cell soma. The label is incorporated into proteins and transported down the axon, where the pulse of radioactive material is then sampled by either autoradiography or scintillation counting.

History of Nutritional Anthropology

In the 1940s, studies of nutrition and the culture of eating were stimulated by the circumstances related to World War II. Committees that included anthropologists and nutritionists were set up in the United States and the United Kingdom to plan food rationing and to ensure adequate nutrition for the troops and support personnel. The U.S. Committee on Food Habits was directed by a well-known anthropologist, Margaret Mead (Wilson, 2002). Between 1950 and 1970 food- and nutrition-related themes were included in some anthropological studies, but nutrition was not in generally a central focus of anthropological study.

Urological Aspects of Terrorist Related Injuries

Abdome Com Pilha

World War IIa Korean Warb Vietnam War (1960s)c Northern Ireland (1970s)d Balkan War (1990s)e Gulf War (1990s)f Israel (terrorist-related)g Blast injury causes injuries to the torso in 38 only one-third of them are isolated, whereas the others are abdominal injuries combined with head, chest, or extremity injuries (Peleg et al. 2003). Gas-containing organs are the most vulnerable to primary blast effect, though injuries to solid organs such as the kidneys are also encountered as a result of acceleration and deceleration forces. At exploration, this injury usually takes the form of hemorrhage beneath the visceral peritoneum that extends into the mesentery, possibly associated with perforation of the bowel or rupture, infarction, ischemia, or hemorrhage of solid organs, including the genitourinary system (Centers for Disease Control 2006 DePalma et al. 2005 Stein and Hirshberg 1999). During warfare, the proportion of the abdominal injury with involvement of the kidneys and ureters is...

Health Insurance and Medicine in the 1980s

Health insurance developed in the pre- and post-World War II period well before medical research began generating a continuing stream of new medical interventions. In recent years, insurers' response to new treatments has become a continuing challenge. Medical necessity provisions not only have anchored that response but also have revealed major problems with that reliance. Bergthold (1995) described medical necessity as rarely defined, largely unexamined, generally misunderstood, and idiosyncratically applied in medical and insurance practice (p. 181).

Biological programming a new theoretical model about the aetiology of heart disease

The dawn of modern epidemiology came after the second world war, first with ecological studies comparing CVD incidence and mortality, and subsequently multicentre cross sectional and follow up studies on CVD.w3 The studies showed that populations with high CVD mortality have high cholesterol and high blood pressure, and that smoking and obesity are common among these populations. 4 This led to the lifestyle model in understanding the aetiology of chronic diseases, where the key issues are health behaviour and the interaction between genes and an adverse environment in adult life. This was consequently followed by intervention programmes, which have significantly improved heart disease risk status in many countries.w3 However, lifestyle factors only explain part of the heart disease risk, which is why other reasons have been sought. For example, in the mid 1980s Rose pointed out that the well established risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) cigarette smoking, high serum...

Measurement of Depth of Anaesthesia

Geudal Classification

In 1845, Snow made the first documented attempt to assess anaesthetic depth, describing five levels of ether anaesthesia. This was refined by Guedel during the First World War, who developed the chart classification of ether anaesthesia based on lacrimation, pupil size and position, respiratory pattern, and peripheral movements. Advances in anaesthesia (in particular the introduction of curare soon after the Second World War) made previous classifications obsolete. As a consequence a new system was developed based on the graded assessment of autonomic activity, which includes 'lacrimation', a parameter surviving from Guedel's chart classification. The ideal measuring system for assessing anaesthetic depth would

Communicating about Risk Menace and Safety

In fact, most evaluations of hazard perceptions in the United States find they can be displayed in two basic dimensions one axis corresponds to whether they are known (observable, known to those exposed, of immediate effect, known to science) or not, and the other axis corresponds to whether they are dreaded (uncontrollable, globally catastrophic, fatal, involuntary) or not. For example, the hazards of radioactive waste are unknown and dreaded, nuclear weapons hazards are known and dreaded bicycle hazards are known and not dreaded, and water fluoridation hazards are unknown and dreaded (Slovic 1987). Studies comparing these perceptions across Poland, the United States, Hungary, and Norway found essentially the same dimensions used in each country (Goszczynska et al. 1991). As yet, however, there is little other comparative data available about perceptions of risk in other sites.

Soybeans And Soybean Processing

Soybeans are now the principal oilseed crop in the United States. They are believed to have been domesticated in the eastern half of northern China around the eleventh century B.C. or earlier. They were later introduced and established in Japan and other parts of Asia, brought to Europe, and were introduced in the United States in the late eighteenth century or early nineteenth century. Soybeans became established as an oilseed crop in the United States in the late 1920s and attained major commercial and importance during World War II.

Production vs Marketing vs Sales

After World War II, consumers had considerable spending power, pent-up demand, and too few goods to purchase. Firms found instant success by producing for the mass market. During the production era, food marketers focused on low-cost products to satisfy excess demand. An example is TV dinners. The earliest versions were frequently bland and cheap. Companies that made these products focused on cost reduction and just getting the product to market. However, as demand decreased and competition increased, firms shifted to a sales orientation. While the company made only minor changes to the TV dinners, they increased sales promotions and gave price deals to increase sales.

The Bacteriological Revolution

From the 1880s, states once more imposed quarantine and isolation, backed by preventive disinfection. The greater effectiveness of state controls, compared with the earlier part of the century, was combined with the more precise focus on eliminating bacterial organisms. Once the role of victims' excretions in contaminating water supplies with the cholera bacillus became known, it was possible to take preventive action by ensuring hygienic water supplies and safe waste disposal. By the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the role of the human body louse in spreading typhus, and that of the mosquito in transmitting malaria and yellow fever, had been identified. Mosquito control programs were launched by the U.S. Army in Cuba following the Spanish-American War of 1898, and subsequently in the Panama Canal Zone, in order to reduce the incidence of yellow fever cases to an acceptable level. Regular delousing reduced typhus among armies on the western front in Europe during World War I. The...

The Control of Drugs and Alcohol

Question of availability raises the controversial issue of the effectiveness of control measures. Do laws against drugs accomplish much more than raising the price of drugs Can prescription controls or international interdiction reduce the supply of drugs Can prohibition reduce the supply of alcohol The answers to these questions are elusive, but one can say that in general the reduction in drug and alcohol use that accompanied the restrictions in the United States beginning with World War I (and ending with the start of a second drug epidemic in the 1960s) occurred during a period of extraordinary antagonism toward drugs. Drugs came under progressively more severe laws, with the exception of alcohol, whose prohibition was repealed in 1933. In the 1930s, at the end of the epidemic that peaked at about the time of World War I, the United States, after requiring general anti-drug and anti-alcohol education through state laws, adopted a policy of silence regarding drugs. When silence was...

Amphetamines and Related Drugs

For many years after their invention, amphetamines were tolerated and their use was even encouraged by authorities. Soldiers in World War II received rations of amphetamines to make them march longer and fight better. The governments of several countries, among them the Soviet Union, experimented with giving amphetamines to factory workers, hoping to make them more productive (which, in the long run, they failed to do). Doctors in this country have prescribed them in great quantity for even more questionable reasons.

Breast Feeding Practices in the West

In the United States, the number of mothers who chose to breast-feed their infants had declined by the middle part of the 20th century, with the decline being most rapid in the middle and upper classes, in association with the economic ability to purchase breast milk substitutes. By the end of World War II, most American women bottle-fed their babies (Raphael, 1973). One of the factors behind the decrease in breast-feeding was active promotion of infant formula by food and drug manufacturing companies. Initially, promotion efforts were aimed at educated women in industrialized nations, but as the birth rate began to fall in the early 1960s, manufacturers turned to developing nations for their markets. Outraged at what were viewed as unethical marketing practices resulting in commerciogenic malnutrition in infants of developing nations, advocacy groups in Europe and North America began what has been called the most successful international boycott in history against Nestl and other...

Immunity and Vaccination

One of the greatest successes of vaccination has been with smallpox. This once devastating disease killed millions in the Old World and scarred countless others. It was then brought to the New World, where it killed millions of Native Americans, in some cases wiping out entire cultures. In fact, the infection was spread intentionally to some tribes by European invaders who distributed infected blankets (an early example of biological warfare). Vaccination with material from the pustules (pox) of victims was practiced in Asia for at least several centuries, but sometimes lead to serious infection. In 1798, Edward Jenner reported on his experiments and observations in England involving cowpox, a related but mild disease of cows and milkmaids. He developed a vaccine based on this virus that provided immunity to smallpox. Vaccination was so successful that by 1966, the World Health Organization undertook a program to eradicate smallpox worldwide. In part because humans are the only known...

Acidifying Salts And Potassium Salts

The diuretic effect of acidifying salts was described at the end of World War I. The two principal agents used were calcium chloride and ammonium chloride. Calcium chloride was the weaker of the two when it was shown that its intravenous use resulted in calcification of the heart and soft tissues it quickly fell

The Elderly Epidemiology

Despite the fact that the incidence of infective endocarditis has not changed, recent studies have shown remarkable changes in the epidemiology and clinical features of the disease. In the 1950s, when rheumatic fever was prevalent, particularly during World War II and before the wide use of penicillin, the incidence of endocarditis was highest in patients aged 20-30 years old and only 5 of patients with endocarditis were over 60 years of age. More recent publications show that the incidence of infective endocarditis has increased in patients older than 50 years, reaching a peak at 70-74 years of age. Currently, more than 50 of patients are older than 50 years 4-7 . Data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) which encompassed in 2003 over 2,200 well-characterized patients from seven countries with definite infective endocarditis by the Duke criteria, demonstrated that the median age of these patients was 58 years 8 . Hoen et al. 9 performed a population-based...

Theoretical and Applied Implications

Much of modern medical anthropology has its origins in anthropologists' interaction in international public health and medical programs of the post World War II era. Anthropologists, like their medical colleagues, assumed that Western medicine was superior to traditional medicine and that the natural course of things was to replace the latter with the former. The skills of anthropology were needed to gain public acceptance of the new medicine and its practitioners. Both anthropology and medicine have come a long way in the succeeding decades.

Radiocarbon UC and Radiocarbon Dating in Forensic Practice

Atmospheric nuclear weapon detonations after 1945 have rapidly increased the radiocarbon burden. This is represented as a sudden peak, often referred to as the bomb peak, when large quantities of artificial carbon isotopes were created through nuclear fission. The result has been a doubling of the 14C activity in terrestrial organisms.79 The geographic distribution of this peak also varied, being higher in the northern hemisphere where the majority of nuclear weapons testing occurred. Since the signing of the atmospheric nuclear test ban treaty by the majority of nations in 1963, this radiocarbon has rapidly redistributed into the biosphere.80

History Of Cancer Chemotherapy And Reflection Thereon

Originally, cancer chemotherapy started with nitrogen mustard, a derivative of poisonous gas yperite, a by-product in World War II. The pharmacological action of nitrogen mustard consists in cytotoxicities (e.g., leukopenia, diarrhea, and stomatitis) to the organism, and attempts were made to utilize these toxicities to obtain anticancer activity. Namely, the modality consisted in cancer therapy using toxicities to the organism that were inherent to nitrogen mustard. From the standpoint of establishing cancer chemotherapy that is ideally based on the premise that only the tumor should be attacked with the least damage to the organism, therefore, we cannot but consider that the approach was the tail wagging the dog (misoriented rescuing). A concept of high-dose chemotherapy, i.e., an anticancer agent fails to be effective unless provoking considerable adverse reactions, still remains at present when half a century has elapsed since the introduction of nitrogen mustard.

The Epidemiological Transition

Historians, the long-term decline of the disease from the middle of the nineteenth century was probably more the result of improvements in housing, hygiene, environmental sanitation, and living standards than of direct medical intervention. The introduction of antibiotics such as streptomycin after World War II proved effective in reducing to insignificant levels mortality from a disease that had been the most frequent cause of death or disability among Americans aged fifteen to forty-five (Dubos and Dubos). Similarly, official responses to syphilis centered, especially in Europe, on the forcible confinement of prostitutes to state-licensed brothels or locked hospital wards, where they were subjected to compulsory medical examination. Before World War I, New York, California, and other states had introduced compulsory reporting of cases of venereal disease, and official concern for the health of U.S. troops led to the jailing of prostitutes. Measures such as these had no discernible...

International Context International Promotion

Hunger and malnutrition were put on the international agenda by the League of Nations in the 1930s, and the first conference of the United Nations in 1943 was devoted to food and agriculture. It remained an important focus of the United Nations technical agencies, FAO, WHO, and UNICEF, which were created immediately after World War II. Other international organizations have since been established, including the World Food Programme, World Food Council, International Fund for Agriculture Development, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, the World Bank, and the Consultative Group on International Agriculture. All these organizations and other international

Historical Development

The advent of World War I saw the first period in history when modern American medicine had to cope with the tragedy of industrial warfare. Legions of combatants returned from Europe with life-altering brain injuries. Assessing the cognitive consequences of such injuries spurred the growth of early assessment methodologies. The aftermath of World War II marked the establishment of modern clinical psychology, with an emphasis on the special skill of psychological testing. Measurement of intelligence was the

Algae Based Industrial Products Of Food Processing

Seaweeds have been commercially exploited for hydrocolloids since 1658, when the gelling properties of agar, extracted with hot water from red seaweed, were first discovered in Japan. Various red and brown seaweeds are used to produce three hydrocolloids, namely agar, alginate, and carrageenan (Table 19.10). A hydrocolloid is a noncrystalline substance with very large molecules which dissolves in water to give a thickened (viscous) solution. Industrial uses of seaweed extracts expanded rapidly after the Second World War, which were subsequently limited by the availability of raw materials. Research into seaweed life cycles has led to the development of cultivation industries that now supply a high proportion of the raw material for some hydrocolloids. Today, approximately 1 million tons of wet seaweed are harvested and extracted to produce these three hydrocolloids. Total hydrocol-loid production is about 55,000 tons, with a value of 585 million (181).

Various Applications For mtDna Testing

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was first opened in 1921 to honor soldiers who had died in World War I. On the tomb are inscribed the words 'Here rests in honored glory an American soldier known but to God.' Within this hallowed ground lie four servicemen, the unknown soldiers of World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. These unknown soldiers are guarded 24 hours a day at Arlington National Cemetery by a sentinel from the 3rd U.S. Infantry. The World War II and Korean War unknowns were selected from about 8500 and 800 unidentifiable remains, respectively, and were entombed on Memorial Day 1958. The Vietnam War casualty was authorized in 1973 for enshrinement, but it was not filled for 11 more years. To honor a Vietnam veteran on Memorial Day 1984 one of the few available unknown remains was selected for enshrinement and honored in a ceremony lead by President Ronald Reagan. There the remains of the Vietnam Unknown lay until 14 May 1998, when they were disinterred...

Conclusion Ethical Implications

The history of epidemics suggests that society's responses have usually included scapegoating marginal and already stigmatized groups and the restriction of their civil rights. From the Jews massacred during the Black Death in medieval Europe, through the beggars and vagrants blamed for the spread of cholera in the nineteenth century, to the prostitutes arrested for allegedly infecting troops with syphilis during World War I, and the minorities whose life-styles were widely regarded as responsible for the spread of AIDS in the 1980s and 1990s, such groups have frequently been subjected to social ostracism and official hostility in times of epidemic disease. Frequently, though not invariably, they have been the very people who have suffered most severely from the disease they were accused of spreading. Doctors have sometimes been reluctant to treat them the state has often responded with punitive measures.

Shock Is Caused by an Inadequate Cardiac Output

Action Potential Pain Flow Chart

The beginning student often erroneously believes that the heart is the sole determinant of cardiac output. In Chapter 14, we learned that the peripheral circulation also plays an important governing role in the circulation. The peripheral circulation controls the filling pressure of the heart as well as its afterload, two major determinants of the stroke volume. This interaction between the heart and the periphery is vividly illustrated by the shock syndrome. In its simplest form, circulatory shock can occur whenever the cardiac output is inadequate to meet the needs of the periphery. If this continues, the peripheral tissues will incur ischemic injury that will trigger a vicious cycle of events leading to circulatory collapse this sequence of events is outlined in Fig. 4. Although war has been the scourge of mankind over his entire recorded existence, one benefit of war has been to provide physicians with large numbers of patients in hemorrhagic and traumatic shock to study. As a...

Microbial Cultivation

Traditional microbial biotechnology began during the first World War when the development of acetone, butanol, and glycerol fermentations took place (149). Microbial primary metabolites used in the food and feed industries include alcohols (ethanol), amino acids (monosodium glutamate, lysine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan), flavor nucleo-tides (5'-guanylic acid, 5'-inosinic acid), organic acids (acetic, propionic, succinic, fumaric, and lactic), polyols (glycerol, mannitol, erythritol, and xylitol), polysaccharides (xanthan and gelan), sugars (fructose, ribose, and sorbose), and vitamins (riboflavin, cya-nocobalamin, and biotin). The group of microbially produced secondary metabolites important for health and nutrition includes antibiotics, other medicinals, toxins, biopesticides, and animal and plant growth factors (150). The targets uses of antibiotics (the best known group of secondary fermentation metabolites) include DNA replication (actinomy-cin, bleomycin, and...

Pregnancy and Fetal Growth

Since World War II, the role of maternal nutrition in fetal growth and development has been extensively studied in the context of protein-calorie malnutrition. The role of n-3 fatty acids has only recently come into focus, despite the evidence of its importance having been demonstrated in a series of studies between 1928 and 1930 involving rats and primates. Lipid nutrition during pregnancy and lactation is of special relevance to human development, because brain development in the human takes place during fetal life and in the first 2 years after birth. DHA is found in larger amounts in the gray matter of the brain and in the retinal membranes, where it accounts for 30 or more of the fatty acids in the ethanolamine and serine phos-pholipid. DHA accumulates in the neurons of the brain between weeks 26 and 40 of gestation in humans.

Hypnosishypnotism Theories

Others hold that the German physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) should be recognized as the founding father of modern hypnosis (which Mesmer called animal magnetism). It was Braid's idea that hypnosis is really nothing more than suggestion, and his significance for psychology is that he took the phenomenon out of the area of mystical explanation and placed it on a physical basis (cf., special process hypothesis - holds that an individual's behavior when under hypnosis is different qualitatively than that of when the person is not under hypnosis). Mesmer applied the principles of magnetism developed in physics to the problems of mental health his method was to have patients grasp metal rods that protruded from a tub of water filled with iron filings, join hands with other patients, and wait for Mesmer to lay hands on them as they became hypnotized. However, a number of experiments conducted in Paris in 1784, headed by the American statesman and ambassador Benjamin Franklin...

The History of Circumcision

The practice of routine neonatal circumcision has been debated within the U.S. medical profession for over a century. Circumcision was initially advocated in the Victorian era as a measure that would reduce masturbation. Medical benefits from the procedure were first widely proposed in 1891 by P. C. Remondino, who claimed that circumcision prevented or cured a host of diseases, including alcoholism, epilepsy, asthma, and renal disease (Wallerstein). More scientific studies of the potential medical benefits of circumcision began to appear in the professional literature in the 1930s. Urologists observed an association between penile cancer and an intact foreskin (Schoen, 1992). During World War II, American troops stationed in the Pacific and in desert climates had problems with irritation and infection of the penis because of sand and the inability to maintain adequate hygiene. The military response was to circumcise many of the affected soldiers. However, the Japanese did not use...

The Ambivalent Commitment of Medicine to the Gold Standard

It is essential, nevertheless, to recognize that deep ambivalence exists within medicine, including oncology, toward randomized clinical trials. Harry Marks (1997) provided a historical account of the struggle to establish the importance of randomized clinical trials in medicine after World War II. Barron Lerner (2001)

Anthropological Theory and Urban Poverty Ways of Representing the Urban Poor

The concept of the culture of poverty is worth noting here because of the impact it has had on discussions of urban poverty in the 1970s and 1980s, and because of its enormous influence on social policy. Oscar Lewis concentrated his ethnographic work on Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Latin American populations in the 1950s and 1960s toward understanding how poverty is perpetuated within certain communities. This question was most concretely addressed in his 1968 work, La Vida, a richly detailed description of Puerto Rican Barrios in New York and San Juan after World War II. Lewis contended that, in populations such as Puerto Ricans and urban Mexicans, exposure to poverty and oppression inevitably resulted in the acquisition of largely self-destructive learned behaviors that perpetuate impoverishment. Waterston (1993) contends that the notion of a culture of poverty was an idea that first surfaced around the time of the Irish immigration of the 1840s and 1850s, as speculation was made...

Combat Trauma and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

In societies that have experienced war, many survivors suffer lasting psychological effects, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The experience of battle is inherently traumatic. Isolation is central to this trauma. Civilian society's common lack of interest in hearing about war traumas, along with survivors' own denial, make healing difficult (Herman, 1992). PTSD has gone by various names in different wars, notably shell shock in World War I. Women war veterans are as prone as men to PTSD, but more men than women are exposed to combat trauma (Goldstein, 2001, pp. 259-263).

Cessation of Carcinogen Exposure

The evidence here seems to conflict. one argument would suggest that a very early stage is involved. I am thinking of the delay of a generation or so between the increase in smoking in men around the First World War, and the rise in lung cancer mortality rates which was so marked 20 or 30 years later and similarly the increase in cigarette smoking among women about the time of the Second World War, and the rise in lung cancer rates for females which has become so noticeable in the last few years. This long delay is what one would expect if a very early part of the process were involved rather than a very recent one.

Microorganisms in the production of biochemicals

The development of a microbial means of producing acetone was vital to the allied effort in the First World War. Acetone was a crucial precursor in explosives manufacture and the demands of war soon outstripped supply by traditional methods. The problem was solved when Chaim Weismann isolated a strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum that could ferment molasses to acetone and butanol (another industrially useful product). Nowadays, acetone is made more cheaply from petrochemicals.

The History of Paleopathology

The first of the truly modern paleopathologists was Sir Marc Armand Ruffer. Ruffer was an English experimental pathologist and bacteriologist of some note when an illness forced him to Egypt for recuperation. He developed the rehydration technique that is still in use for preparing microscopic sections of mummies and made a number of important diagnostic contributions before being lost at sea in World War I (Ruffer, 1921).

Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Origins of Adult Metabolic Diseases

Assessing the impact of maternal nutrition on health of the offspring in humans is difficult. However, investigations involving offspring conceived during conditions of famine have provided direct evidence of the effects that maternal nutrition during gestation and lactation has on the overall health of the adult offspring. The Dutch famine, which occurred in the western part of the Netherlands at the end of World War II, only lasted around 5 months from late November 1944 to early May 1945, and was therefore defined as a short period of famine. Prior to the onset of the famine conditions, the affected area of the Netherlands consisted of a reasonably well-nourished population. The occurrence of this abrupt famine therefore granted researchers a unique opportunity to retrospectively study the effect of maternal nutrition during specific stages of gestation on insulin-glucose homeostasis and obesity risk in adult offspring (Table 2).

Can the Perinatal Environment Influence Adult Metabolic Homeostasis

Maternal nutrient supply and her ability to transport these via the placenta to the fetus are the determinants of fetal substrate supply and therefore have a major impact on fetal growth.8 The associations between small-size-at-birth and later impairment of metabolic homeostasis therefore implicate maternal and placental factors as initiating factors. There is limited data of a direct nature in humans on the long-term consequences of exposure to individual maternal or placental factors during pregnancy that might be the initiating factors for poor adult metabolic homeostasis, however. Severe acute maternal undernutrition in women who were pregnant during the Dutch famine of World War 2 increased rates of obesity in young adult men, and increased body mass index in women but not men in middle age, when fetal exposure occurred during the first half of pregnancy.24'25 Interestingly, fetal exposure to famine during the last trimester of pregnancy reduced the incidence of obesity in young...

P Recovery and Rehabilitation

Reports of recovery of function were documented as early as the 16th century. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the literature related to the rehabilitation of aphasia was almost exclusively in German. Much of this was the result of World War I experience when rehabilitation centers for the brain injured were established particularly in Germany. During World War II, several specialized, comprehensive programs were developed in military medical centers in the United States for veterans with aphasia secondary to head injuries. In the period immediately following World War II, concurrent with the birth of rehabilitation medicine as a medical specialty and the emergence of speech-language pathology as a health-related profession, treatment services for civilians with aphasia began to emerge.

Spectrophotometric Assays

The development of dual-wavelength systems began with Glen Millikan, who ingeniously scribed a barrier in the Weston photovoltaic cell and used green and red filters to measure myoglobin spectral changes in the visible region. However, he connected the output to a mirror galvanometer so that the system was intrinsically quite slow and thus unsuitable for the rapid measurements required for the flow apparatus. The dual-wavelength principle was continued in the Millikan ear oximeter used so effectively during World War II. The introduction of the chopper-stabilized amplifiers in systems exploited during World War II by the Group 63 of Chance and colleagues (Precision Circuits Group at MIT RadLabs) led to a whole new generation of low-level amplifiers and was the basis for many commercial instruments. Furthermore, the basis for the

Social Facilitation Theory

Believed to be a force for innovation and suggests that minorities are most effective when they are consistent, and in concordance, with the group's underlying values . In the social-influence phenomenon of obedience cf., the shock and prison experiments, respectively, by the American social psychologists Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) and Philip G. Zimbardo (1933- ) , the individual yields to explicit instructions orders from some perceived authority figure cf., Eichmann ef-fect -named after the evil notorious Nazi extermination camp chief Otto Adolf Eichmann (1906-1962), who slavishly followed Adolph Hitler's orders during World War II this concept effect, when applied to laboratory studies, emphasizes the fact that even in normal or peaceful times, an ordinary person may be willing to commit atrocities (one would not normally commit) when one sees oneself merely as an instrument, not the source, of some higher authority cf., also, the Lt. William Calley court-martial case regarding...

Abnormal Microbial Infection

Indeed, within the past millennia, microbial disease has proven to be a formidable adversary, one that has the potential to decimate the human population if left unchecked. During the Middle Ages and extending into the nineteenth century, diseases such as bubonic plague, cholera, and typhoid swept through Europe, causing massive mortality. The influenza pandemic at the end of World War I, for example, killed more people than the war itself.

Clinical Features

Trench foot was given its current name after it was frequently found among World War I troops who had been confined for long periods in trenches filled with standing cold water. Significant numbers of cases were also seen in the Falkland and Vietnam wars. Immersion foot describes a more severe variant of trench foot seen in downed pilots and shipwrecked sailors exposed for extended periods in life rafts in the North Atlantic Ocean. Although they are a significant problem in military operations, trench foot and immersion foot are rarely seen in the civilian population.

Neurotoxic Contaminants

These neurotoxic compounds target the cholinergic neuromuscular system, where they inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. and pseudocholinesterases (E.C. These are the lytic enzymes of signal choline esters, including acetylcholine (ACh), and consequently their inhibition causes an overflow of ACh at receptor sites this, in turn, affects intra-cellular responses. In this way, neurotoxic compounds may cause alteration of all functions of the cholinergic neurotransmission system, and of other neu-rotransmitters, the release of which is influenced by the cholinergic system (Buznikov et al. 2001). The pharmacology of OPs has been extensively studied, since they were initially conceived as chemical weapons during World War II (Karczmar et al. 1970). Some differences between the two classes of neurotoxic pesticides are known (1) OPs irreversibly link the AChE molecule by the phosphate group (Sultatos 1994), while carbamates compete for the substrate...

Relative Status of Men and Women

As noted above, men enjoy privileged status in the public arena. In the family, however, the relative status of men and women is shifting and ambiguous. Historically, women in Ukraine have wielded considerable decision-making power in families, especially in rural contexts. Another factor that has enhanced women's authority in the family was the loss of millions of men during World War II. Women today point out that they learned how to be women (and the heads of families) from their mothers, many of whom were widowed during the war.

Population Age and Size

Expansion rates for saprotrophic basidiomycetes with non-unit-restricted growth is in the order of 0.3-1.5 m-1 year-1 (Hansen and Hamelin, 1999). To get a reliable measure of the expansion rate an independent measure of age is needed. This is hard to achieve from markers within the mycelium and has to be sought from known historical events. Normally the maximum age can be calculated but there are also a number of cases where minimum age has been inferred from forestry operations or construction of roads etc. For example, genets of Armillaria were estimated to be older than a road that crossed through its distribution (Kile, 1983 Lygis et al., 2005), and the age of H. annosum was dated from the onset of thinning operations in previously untouched stands (Bendz-Hellgren et al., 1999). Another possibility may be to use the spike in 14C from nuclear weapon trials date biological material to certain years (Levin and Kromer, 2004). This requires that mycelial structures are built during...

H 56 Results and Outcome

Outcome after abdominal vascular trauma is strongly related to whether shock is present at arrival. The time elapsing from the trauma to the patient's arrival at the hospital is important. For example, few patients survived penetrating abdominal vascular trauma during World War II, whereas 42 did during the Vietnam War. In series from civilian life looking at survival of patients with aortic or vena cava injuries arriving alive to the hospital, around half have been reported to survive. Besides shock, free bleeding in the peritoneal cavity and suprarenal location of the injury are risk factors for poor outcome. Survival rates after blunt trauma are around 75 in the literature. Observational studies including 200 patients or more list suprarenal or juxtarenal aortic injuries, retrohepatic and hepatic vein injuries, and portal vein injuries as associated with the highest mortality.

Other Mycotoxins That Can Occur In Food

T-2 toxin was isolated from strain T-2 of F. sporotrichio-ides misidentified as F. tricinctum isolated from corn associated with cow mortalities (33,114). This compound has been the subject of considerable toxicological study (17) because it is easy to isolate and purify. During World War II, there were large-scale poisoning of the rural population in the former Soviet Union caused by the consumption of grains left in the field over winter (estimates range to 1,000,000 victims). The disease was called alimentary toxic aleukia. Samples of extracts made at the time have been shown to contain the trichothecenes T-2 and HT-2 toxin. Shortly after consuming food prepared with contaminated grain, people reported a burning sensation in their mouths, vomiting, weakness, fatigue, and tachycardia. After a period of time, affected individuals felt better, but there was a progressive leucopenia, anemia, and decreased platelet count, lowering the resistance of the body to bacterial infection. As...

Education and Training

Crick was born in Northampton, England, in 1916. He studied physics at University College in London until the outbreak of the Second World War. He then joined the British Admiralty Research Laboratory, where he contributed to the development of radar for tracking enemy planes, and magnetic mines used in naval warfare.

The Holocaust in Bioethical Discourse

Public discussions about end-of-life options, from disconnecting life supports to physician-assisted suicide, inevitably raise comparisons to the euthanasia campaign in World War II, especially in Germany (Kottow, Spannaus et al.). In a Hastings Center Report commentary, the Village Voice columnist Nat Hentoff compared Dan Callahan's argument in Setting Limits (in which Callahan argued that some categories of people, notably the elderly, should not be entitled to the same access to healthcare as others) to the Nazi policy of lebensunwertes leben, life unworthy of life. Hentoff also stated that the Hastings Center's 1987 Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying would have been welcomed by defense attorneys for Nazi doctors. Although the respondents, including Callahan, addressed some of Hentoffs arguments against Callahan's points, the responses focused predominantly on the appropriateness of the Nazi analogy. Ironically,...

Negative consequences of not using a technology

One technology that is only 'emerging' because of its limited application in the market is that of irradiation. Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation has been researched for decades. A report by the World Health Organization concluded that food irradiated to any dose to achieve the intended technological objective is safe to consume and nutritionally adequate (WHO, 1999). However, consumers associate the process with the negative effects of radiation on humans resulting from atomic bombs and the fear of nuclear war and accidents at nuclear power facilities such as those at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Activists have viewed the process as a way to mask contamination, and they claim it destroys nutrients and creates harmful chemicals. Consumer misconceptions about the

Marketplace Demands And Driving Forces

Many driving forces result in increased marketplace demands for foods that offer quality, convenience, safety, and low cost. Some of these driving forces are lifestyle changes, demographic changes, and market globalization. The most noticeable lifestyle changes are influenced by smaller families, the increasing number of single-person households, and dual-income families. The major demographic change was the population spike that occurred after World War II ( Baby Boomers ), which resulted in an increased number of older consumers who demand more nutritious and healthier foods that are easy to prepare. Market globalization has resulted in increased importing and exporting of foods to and from many different and distant regions, creating strong consumer demands for regulations that ensure food safety and better product labeling. Some other driving forces are the macroeconomics in Europe and North America, the continued consolidation in industry, and the public concern over packaging...

TABLE 1998 Commonly Treated Forms of Internal Contamination

RADIOIODINE Inhalation or ingestion of radioiodine is particularly hazardous to the thyroid with a potential risk of causing hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. I-131 is the predominant internal contaminate resulting from incidents that involve the release of nuclear fission products such as a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapons test. Studies on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident have shown that populations in heavily contaminated areas have an increase in thyroid cancer presumed to have resulted from radioiodine exposure. The number of thyroid cancers reported in these areas continues to increase, with the highest prevalence in individuals who were under the age of 10 years at the time of the accident.4

Chapter References

Urbanetti JS Toxic inhalation injury, in Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR (eds) Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington Office of the Surgeon General, TMM Publications, 1997, pp 247-270. 17. Sidell FR Nerve agents, in Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR (eds) Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington Office of the Surgeon General, TMM Publications, 1997, pp 129-179. 18. Sidell FR, Urbanetti JS, Smith WJ, Hurst CG Vesicants, in Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR (eds) Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington Office of the Surgeon General, TMM Publications, 1997, pp 197-228. 22. Eitzen EM Use of biological weapons, in Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR (eds) Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington Office of the Surgeon General, TMM Publications, 1997, pp 437-466.

Internally Contaminated Patients

Radioactive material gains entry into the body by three principal routes inhalation, ingestion, or absorption from contaminated mucous membranes or abraded skin. Misadministration of a radiopharmaceutical is a potential source of internal contamination that can occur in the hospital setting. Internal contamination becomes a major concern of the population if large amounts of radioactive material are released into the atmosphere as a result of nuclear weapon detonation, large-scale nuclear power plant accident, or even a volcanic eruption. Such events may result in inhalation of airborne radioactive material or ingestion of radioactive material deposited onto agricultural land with subsequent transfer into the food chain.

Egg Products From Breaking Operations

Egg-breaking operations were established in order to open an outlet for surplus eggs, small eggs, cracked eggs, and dirty eggs and to provide relatively long shelf life products for bakers and confectioners who were the main users until World War II (WWII). Today, the entire production of some farms is fully directed to egg breaking. In other egg farms, most of the medium eggs are also directed to breaking, and larger eggs are sent to the fresh egg market. Prior to 1940, breaking operations accounted for 5 6 of U.S. egg production. They were more common in the Midwest where mainly frozen products were produced. During and after WWII, large quantities of dry products were needed to feed the troops and for emergency feeding programs for European populations. Twelve large drying facilities were erected in the Midwest and operated around the clock. Fast egg-breaking machines were developed to meet the volumes of production needed. Egg-breaking production jumped to 9.0 in 1960, 24.4 in...

Leadership in Public Arenas

The traditional Chinese society was a male-dominated society where men usually occupied leadership positions in the political arena. The immigrants carried this tradition to the United States. Before World War II, men Starting in the 1920s, an increasing number of Chinese American women became active in the public arena. They participated in community work, organized their own clubs, joined the labor movement, and involved in politics in both China and the United States. They made important contributions to the war effort in China against Japanese military invasion in the 1930s. Many Chinese American women joined the U.S. military and took jobs in defense industries during World War II. Beginning in the 1970s, a small number of Chinese American women also held important political posts.

Why Offpump Bypass Surgery

The first milestones in coronary revascularisation were surgical. It all started after the second world war with the implantation of the internal mammary artery indirectly into the cardiac muscle (the Vineberg procedure). A few years later, procedures for direct coronary artery revascularisation were designed, initially including endarterectomy, followed by the construction of an anastomosis between a donor artery or vein and the coronary artery. Interestingly, these first operations were performed on the beating heart without the use of extracorporeal circulation and cardiac arrest.w4 The results of these early initiatives were generally unpredictable, preventing general acceptance and widespread use. It became clear that the safety and efficacy of surgical coronary revascularisation in terms of in-hospital complications and immediate and long term clinical outcome greatly depends, among other factors, on the quality of the anastomosis between the donor graft and recipient coronary...

Sources Of Assistance

Search Team (NEST), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), and Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site (REACTS). These assets provide expert technical support throughout the U.S. in response to radiation accidents, nuclear weapons incidents, lost or stolen radioactive materials, or acts of nuclear terrorism.

Food Science And Technology As A Title

The founding of the IFT in 1939 (10) led to general use of the term food technologist. Reference was made in the last section to Prescott and Proctor's book for its use of the term food technology another who did so in the same year, 1937, was Bitting (11). He called himself a food technologist on the title page of his book. By 1945, the original four departments that had taught the subject under different titles had changed their departmental names to food science, food science and technology, food engineering, or some variant such as food science and nutrition. Several other food science departments were organized in the 15 years after World War II. A few of the departments started ex nihilo most had their origins in some commodity department or represented amalgamations where phases of food science taught in various departments were transferred and combined to form a new department. A factor that also solidified the use of food technology was development of the IFT's curricular...

Historical Development And General

Phosphates exhibit functional properties in a wide variety of foods produced by all segments of the processed food industry. The availability of sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium phosphates offers food technologists and food scientists formulation flexibility to control taste, nutritional, and other technical properties. The commercial use of food phosphates may be traced to 1864 when the first U.S. patent was granted for a phosphate-containing baking powder (1). The use of emulsifying salts in Europe for production of process cheese products began about 1895 and has been reviewed (2). Principal development in the United States began in 1916 (3). Since World War II new uses have developed in food products, including meats, poultry, seafood, beverages, dairy products, infant foods, cereals, desserts, produce, and nutritional supplements. Various detailed reviews have been published (4-6).

Frostbite And Other Localized Coldrelated Injuries

Throughout history the most celebrated and extreme reports of cold-related injuries have been in the field of military endeavor. From Hannibal's losing half his 46,000-man army crossing the Pyrenean Alps to frostbite and hypothermia, to the tens of thousands of cases of trench foot during World War I, we have learned much. Perhaps the most famous cold-injury mass-casualty incident was Napoleon's retreat from Moscow during the dreadful winter of 1812-1813. This first authoritative account, as described by Napoleon's surgeon-in-chief, Baron de Larrey, described how each evening thousands of French soldiers thawed, and often inadvertently burned, their frozen extremities over campfires, only to refreeze them again on the next day's march. Combined heat and cold injury coupled with refreezing and forced ambulation resulted in abysmal outcomes. In addition, thousands died from the tetanus sustained from their frostbite wounds. It was from this experience that Larrey recommended rubbing...

Description and intended use

At the heart of his theory of cognitive development was the notion that the child passed through a set of ordered, qualitatively different stages. Intellectually, the child was not seen as a young adult, but rather, as one employing very different cognitive structures and processes. The stage theory was first expressed in a series of lectures presented to French scholars during the Second World War (Brainerd, 2003, p. 257) and subsequently in a series of publications, most notably, The Psychology of Intelligence, published in 1950.

Cultural Construction of Gender

The missionaries' blouse design was conferred on the Shipibo because, before missionary contact, Shipibo women customarily wore nothing from the waist up except a shoulder shawl loop used for carrying a baby at the hip. In the evenings, after dark, and when going to the river to do laundry and bathe the children, this custom prevails. Having learned that the savage custom of female upper-body nudity offends outsiders such as Christian missionaries, women cover themselves when they know that unfamiliar visitors are present. Women wear their hair long, usually cut at a little more than shoulder-length, with bangs just above the eyebrows, giving a classical Shipibo look. Men have worn their hair short with a Western haircut since they were introduced to this style in military service beginning with World War II, although young boys may have long hair.

Artificial or Man Made Radioisotopes

Exposure of the population to radiation has increased in the last century through fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The isotopes of the alkaline earth metals, for example, strontium and barium, are similar in their biochemical properties to calcium. Although they have no apparent metabolic function, they are absorbed across the intestinal mucosa and preferentially incorporated in to the matrix of the skeletal system.85 Therefore, man-made fission products that entered the biosphere following atmospheric nuclear weapons detonations should be present in the bone matrices of those who died after 1945 and remain absent in those who died before 1945. The criteria that must be met by any radioactive isotope dating technique to be of forensic interest are defined as follows A possible limitation inherent to the methods measuring man-made radioisotopes is the irregular creation of such nuclides. Between 1945 and 1998 more than 2040 nuclear weapons tests were performed at irregular...

The Rise of Employer Sponsored Health Insurance

Once the United States plunged into World War II, a hidden enemy was inflation resulting from the overheated economy of total mobilization. The Congress quickly passed wage and price controls, inadvertently hampering the recruitment of workers from the farms to the war economy. Moving literally millions of rural workers to the large cities required incentives, and since higher wages were not permitted, offering complete health care was an acceptable alternative. Emerging from the Great Depression, these workers who flocked to the shipyards, munitions plants, and aircraft factories liked the security that employer-paid health care gave them. After the war the labor unions made it a centerpiece in their collective bargaining, and employers found the tax and other advantages preferable to granting higher wages. By 1950 employer-paid health care was a part of the fabric of our society, and the third-party payor was here to stay.

Intercountry Adoption

The shortage of desirable adoptable babies in the United States has led many who wish to adopt to seek children in other countries. The first international adoptions generally involved Amerasian children, that is, those fathered by GIs in Japan during and after World War II, in Korea during and after the Korean War, and in Vietnam during the U.S. involvement there. These adoptions were first sponsored by church groups and then by licensed adoption agencies (Lifton, 1994).

Uniformitarianism replies

The early nineteenth century witnessed the opposition - sometimes violent - of the catastrophist school and the uniformitarian school. Yet this theoretical quarrel did not prevent geology from growing. Quite the contrary. Lyell's views would ultimately triumph and make it possible to found a great many branches of modern scientific geology. In fact they remain deeply ingrained in the minds of most geologists, even as recent history has made us familiar with the concepts of evolution and dynamism and, unfortunately, given vigorous new life to the notion of catastrophe. Nuclear war, overpopulation, famine, desertification, the greenhouse effect, the hole in the ozone layer - so many threats, real or assumed, that frighten us and that our newspapers outdo one another in reporting - all are birds of ill omen for the agitated end of a millennium. Are humans at risk of disappearing, the victims of their own folly or of a Nature gone haywire If, as Lyell thought, the present must be our key...

Brief History of Anthropological Health Research

With the end of World War II, medical anthropology (still at that time an unnamed specialization) received impetus and support from foundation- and government-funded applied work in the arena of international public health. The data collected by anthropologists in earlier times for non-medical purposes proved invaluable anthropologists helped ensure that social and cultural aspects of health and healing were taken into account in ways that promoted international health program success (Foster & Anderson, 1978, pp. 7-8).

Enteritis Necroticans Disease Summary

Enteritis necroticans (also known as necrotizing enteritis, Darmbrand, or Pigbel) caused by C. perfringens type C isolates is a rare but potentially lethal enteric disease of humans. This illness was first recognized after World War II in Darmbrand, Germany and later in Papua New Guinea. 20 The p -toxin produced by type C isolates is considered as the primary virulence factor based on the relative efficacy of a p-toxoid vaccine. 20 Although the incidence of enteritis necroticans is low, risk factors include reduced intestinal motility and or low intestinal trypsin levels (the p-toxin is trypsin-sensitive) because of preexisting conditions created by a protein-poor diet, helminthic coinfection, and or pancreatic disease. 20 The offending type C isolates can be introduced exo-genously by ingestion of undercooked meat products (commonly pork).

The Basis Of Informed Consent

The Nuremberg trials and subsequent Nuremberg Code on Medical Intervention and Experimentation focused professional and public attention on the issue of informed consent. The trials revealed the horrific and inhumane practices of many health care professionals during World War II under the guise of treatment and research

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