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Evidencebased treatment

The degree of blinding in a study should also be considered. It is important to recognize that blinding can occur at six levels the investigators, the patients, the outcome assessors, adjudication committee, the data monitoring committee, the data analysts, and even the manuscript writers

Industry Statistics The Pharma and Biotech Industries

The worldwide pharmaceutical marketplace is composed of four geographic areas the United States, Europe (European Union), Asia (Japan, China, Australia), and the rest of the world (ROW). In addition, pharmaceutical companies are generally divided into five categories pharmaceuticals (brand drugs, also known as ethical drugs), biotechnology products, generic drugs, over-the-counter (OTC) drugs (non-prescription), and devices. Support companies for the industry exist in many categories as well. Seven categories are suggested as follows research or discovery technology (e.g., high-throughput screening, genomics, antisense, monoclonal antibodies), venture capital companies (financing support especially for small companies), clinical research organizations (generally operations and management for clinical research), specialty services companies for conduct of clinical trials to supplement company staffing (e.g., statistics, patient recruitment, medical writers, regulatory), medical...

Thinking skills and critical thinking

Ennis believes that critical thinking depends essentially on two overarching dispositions caring to 'get it right' to the extent possible and caring to present positions honestly and clearly. It also depends on the process of evaluation (applying criteria to judge possible answers), a process implicit or explicit in most of the essential critical thinking abilities listed by Ennis (1987). The idea of evaluation is common to most, but not all, of the definitions we have found, but the overall impression is one of diversity and subjectivity rather than clarity. Each writer seems to have an individual conception of 'good' (i.e. 'critical') thinking, if not of'reason' and 'truth'.

Implications for Phenomenology

Toombs's ideal convergence between doctor and patient is predicated upon a homogeneous cultural landscape. Although the doctor's perspective is scientistic and the patient's is not, the doctor him or herself has an existential grounding in a lived body that is fundamentally like that of the patient. Roberts, Willis, and Gunaratnam call this shared body into question. Writers such as Cassell suppose that not having an experience can be potentially remedied through careful questioning that aims to provide the doctor with a greater understanding, enhancing the doctor's own worldly understanding. But experience does not always add up. Ceres Victora conducted an ethnographic study of working-class

The Therapeutic Environment Animals as an Aspect of Milieu Therapy

One of the most valued aspects of having animals as part of a therapeutic alliance appears to be related to their impact on altering the therapeutic environment. This assumption has been strongly advocated by this writer in numerous previous publications. The assumption has also been supported by Alan Beck who also believed that animals seemed to have the capacity to modify a person's environment. In most cases, presence of an animal appears to modify the perceived environment and make it more friendly and comfortable to incoming clients. Herbert Sklar suggests that development of an effective therapeutic alliance may actually begin with the creation of a proper therapeutic environment. It appears that the client's readiness for psychotherapy could be disturbed by the simplicity of a clinic's decor and perhaps by its disorder.

Biomedicine and Bioethics

Bioethics can therefore no longer avoid questioning the meaning of terms like normality and abnormality as they are used within bio-medicine and bioethical debate. The need to do so has become more acute, especially in terms of biomedicine's ideological function, because recent advances in genetic medicine and the implementation of the Human Genome Project (HGP) have shifted the perspective from which the relationship between genomes and identity is considered. The coordinated attempt to sequence the entire human genome, and the genomes of other species, began in the early 1990s, and a number of writers have traced these developments (see, for example, Watson and Cook-Deegan 1991 Kevles 1992 Judson 1992). The motivation behind the HGP was complex and rhetorically linked to increasing biomedical knowledge with the promise of medical and other benefits to come. Genetic mapping and sequencing were techniques that had been applied in molecular biology for some time, but earlier efforts...

Maps charts and diagrams

Various other terms have been used, sometimes loosely or metaphorically, to denote the fabric of a domain or field. For instance, a map can indicate relationships between categories by depicting a connection with a line. The strength of the connection may also be indicated by proximity or line density. Hence, various thinking skills may be depicted on paper and arranged so that they form clusters of related items. A map is a term applied to a wide range of depictions, pictorial and verbal, that may or may not constitute a taxonomy. Given the nature of a taxonomy, it would be perverse for a writer to call it something else unless it fell short of the mark. On the other hand, calling something a taxonomy does not make it one.

Historical Perspective

Although the vital nature of the cardiovascular system was clearly apparent to the ancients, its actual function was a mystery. An early attempt to explain the function of the heart and the blood was made by the Greek physician and writer Galen (130-201 A.D.). He taught that there was an ebb and flow of fluid between the heart and the abdominal viscera, where the natural spirits'' were formed between the heart and the brain, where the animal spirit'' was created and between the heart and the lungs, where vital spirits'' entered the body through the trachea. This erroneous concept remained a major cornerstone of medical thought for the next 14 centuries.

Concorde Fallacyeffect

Condillac presented his famous analogy parable of the sentient statue to emphasize that the whole of mental life may be derived in experience from sensation alone. One is asked to imagine a statue that is endowed with only a single sense, such as the simple sense of smell. The statue smells a rose (where the statue is a rose for the time being because there is nothing else to its existence than this odor) and is, thereby, said to be attending to the odor. Thus, one may see how attention comes into mental life the first odor goes, and another odor comes then the first returns, and the statue knows that what was can come again this is memory. When what recurs with what is, the statue may be said to be comparing one odor is pleasant, another odor is unpleasant. Also, in the inherent values of the odors, the statue learns of desire and aversion. In like fashion, judgment, discernment, imagination, and other sorts of abstract notions are represented by Condillac as possible of development...

The Moral Status of Animals

Certainly the view that species is in itself a reason for giving more weight to the interests of one being than to the interests of another is more often assumed than explicitly defended. Some writers who have claimed to be defending speciesism have in fact been defending a very different position that the morally relevant differences between species such as differences in mental capacities entitle people to give more weight to the interests of members of the species with the superior mental capacities (Cohen Leahy). If this argument were successful, it would not justify speciesism because the claim would not be that species in itself is a reason for giving more weight to the interests of one being than to those of another. The real reason would be the difference in mental capacities, which happens to coincide with the difference in species. However, in view of the overlap in mental capacities between some members of the species Homo sapiens and some members of other species, it is...

Consciousness Phenomenon

Areas of neuropsychology, language, and cognition. E. R. Hilgard (1977) suggests that it is useful to assign two modes to consciousness (cf., Shallice, 1972) a receptive mode and an active mode, where the former is reflected in the relatively passive registration of events as they impinge on one's sense organs, and the latter is reflected in the active, planning, and voluntary aspects of behavior both of these modes are demonstrated in the special problems of a divided consciousness or divided control. Occasionally, the phenomenon of consciousness is equated with the term self-consciousness wherein to be conscious it is only necessary for one to be aware of the external world. Some skeptical writers, notably the behaviorists, assert that consciousness is an interesting, but elusive, phenomenon it is impossible to specify what it is, what it does, or why it evolved cf., Reese (2001, p. 229) who states that very little, if any, progress has been made in a century of research on...

Derived Properties Postulate

The French mathematician and philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650) is regarded by many researchers to be the first writer to deal with laughter from the physiological, as well as from the psychological, point of view however, other researchers attribute this honor to the French physician Laurent Joubert (1529-1582) cf., Roeckelein, 2002, p. 131 . Descartes' theory of laughter begins with a physiological account of what causes the audible explosion in laughter (the blood passes from the right cavity of the heart to the lungs, filling them, and drives out the air). According to Descartes, psychologically there are only six basic emotions (wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy, and sadness), and laughter is found to accompany three of them (wonder, mild hatred, and joy). Descartes asserted that derision is a kind of joy that is mixed both with surprise and hate, and when laughter is natural (and not feigned or artificial), it seems to be due partially to...

Gender Roles in Economics

Division of labor by gender is the basic organizing principle of work in an Aymara community. Aymara women say, The woman is the soul of the family without her a hearth grows cold and husband and children scatter. She is responsible for the myriad domestic tasks of subsistence farm life. As in many cultures, a woman's tasks are more numerous than a man's. His work is defined by agriculture and other economic pursuits, while she does everything else including helping her husband with planting, weeding, cultivating, and harvesting. The man is considered to be doing the real work, with a wife or older sons assisting. A woman may delegate some work to children of both genders, but without their help, she must do everything from watching livestock and hauling water to cooking, caring for children, and maintaining the house, with any otherwise unoccupied moments filled with spinning, weaving, or knitting. It is interesting that a 16th century writer observed that Andean women were so fond...

Antecedents in Psychology

It is customary, if misleading, to date the birth of experimental psychology with Wilhelm Wundt's founding of the discipline's first university laboratory at Leipzig in 1878-1879. Wundt (1832-1920) was perhaps the discipline's most prolific writer. His texts, which were wideranging and immensely influential at the time psychology departments were being formed in Europe, England, and the United States, emphasized experimental over ethological (naturalistic) modes of inquiry. But the reading of Wundt was rather selective. In his less-consulted multivolume V lkerpsychologie (best rendered as anthropological psychology ) he developed and defended the nonexperimental and essentially historical anthropological mission of psychology, drawing attention to the limits of reductionistic strategies and explanations. Even with this broadened perspective, Wundt remained loyal to the scientific views of his age, acquired in his medical education and as he assisted the great Hermann von Helmholtz. In...

Behavioral Assessment and Functional Analyses

Given this discussion, much has changed in behavioral theory and its application over the past 30 years. The field has witnessed growth, delineations of theoretical perspectives, and widespread applications. Indeed, the rate of change within the behavioral perspective has been so rapid that earlier writers such as Mahoney, Kazdin, and Lesswing questioned whether behavior therapy was even behavioral. This argument stemmed from earlier rebellions against the applications of techniques that assume the functional utility of private consciousness. However, as Mahoney, Kazdin, and Lesswing point out, Skinner too considered private mental activity to be of utility in determining functional relations with behavior, although he contended these were beyond our ability to empirically support.

Opportunities in Science Journalism

Opportunities for science writers continue to expand beyond such traditional media as newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. For example, there are on-line publications, some of which specialize only in research topics. Science writers are also hired as public information officers, to explain research at universities and government agencies. There are com The latter jobs mean writing for a science-literate audience. For the most part, however, science journalists explain a technical world to a nontechnical audience. Their goal is not to teach people how to do the science, just how to appreciate it, evaluate it, and even enjoy it. Continually learning new science, and explaining it to those who are interested, is one of the great benefits of being a science writer.

Possession Beliefs in Western Thought

The popular view of the day, as expressed in the New Testament, was that evil spirits caused illness, physical and mental, by possessing people (Guinebert, 1959). The sophisticated view of the time, expressed by Jewish writers such as Flavius Josephus and Philo Judaeus, was rather that it was the souls of evildoers who possessed individuals, a view that was elaborated later in Jewish history, where a tradition of negative spontaneous possession and exorcism continued.

Gender Related Social Groups

As in most of Western Europe, kinship is recognized bilaterally, but surnames are typically patrilineal. Women bear a feminine form (ending in -ova or -a) of their father's surname until marriage. Czech law requires that women take the feminine form of their husband's name upon marriage an exception was made in 2000 for Czech women who marry non-Czech men, and who now have the option of using their husband's surname without modification. The surnames of women foreign writers and celebrities are typically feminized (e.g., Danielle Steeleova, Hillary Clintonova), although this practice is slowly decreasing. Historically, Czechs typically had two or three given names, often taking the name of the samesex godparent as a middle name. Most Czechs now have a single given name, except for some individuals from German or historically prominent families. Czechs do not have a Russian-style patronymic.

Caring in Nursing Theory Philosophy and Ethics

Nursing theorists, educators, and philosophers explored and applied a more extensive theory and ethic of care prior to 1982 than any other single group had. Their contributions differed considerably from those of physician-writers The nursing theorists paid much more attention to the meaning and theories of nursing, examined the structures and functions of care, turned occasionally to philosophers who had explained the meaning of care (such as Martin Heidegger and Milton Mayeroff), developed the implications of care for nursing practices and skills, considered the status of caregivers, showed an interest in the historical links between nursing and maternal care, and proposed educational improvements to foster professional care.

Selfwill And Selftransformation In Love

Creative writers and biographers, as well as lovers themselves, sense the catalytic effect of love in changing the lover and intuit that the resultant change sometimes takes priority of importance over the love itself. From them we get a glimmer that the power of love is an internal one, its magic ultimately residing in the lover's internal creative flux, not in the worth of the beloved (however worthy the beloved may be), not in possession, not in reciprocity. Even the most transported lovers sometimes retain an awareness that love is often brief, the beloved fickle, while all the time still revelling in their love. Rosalind, in As You Like It, knows love's limits, and her beloved Orlando's too, but that never stops her from glorying in the very tumult of her own emotions in the recklessness, the excess, and the freedom of letting go. That freedom seems to be the joyousness that runs throughout the play, bubbling up and overcoming her in the midst of her witty commentary on love. She...

Structure of the Research Team

Other changes spawned by the disaster clearly are visible as one studies Guatemala in the 21st century. Some writers conclude that the earthquake was a watershed event that increased a disaster of another kind the 35-year civil war, a scorched land, and a reign of terrorism (Green, 1999). Others have claimed that the earthquake brought new religions into awareness and created a new evangelism. From seeing the vast number of factories and new industries that were spawned and the agribusinesses in the highlands, the earthquake did spawn conflict and transformation (Annis, 1987 Brydon & Grant, 1989 Petersen, 1992 Watanabe, 1992). Other changes include the indigenous rights movement, with the Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Rigoberta Menchu, an indigenous Guatemalan woman, for her role in drawing attention to the abuse of human rights not only in Guatemala but throughout the world (Menchu, 1992). Analysis of all these changes is beyond the scope of this entry, but it can be noted that the...

Role and Methodologies

In response to these perceived inadequacies in the forms of ethical inquiry, Glenn C. Graber and David C. Thomasma attempted to recast the theory and practice of medical ethics in terms of a unitary ethical theory founded in clinical medicine itself (Ackerman et al.). Their contribution, with strengths and weaknesses, was expertly reviewed in 1990 by Richard M. Zaner, a philosopher with significant clinical experience, who enriched the literature with narratives of illness and of the ethical conflicts over uses of high technology that are frequent in tertiary-care centers. Other contributors to the clinical ethics literature responded by drawing on the works of feminist (Gilligan Noddings Wolf Tong) and theological (Hauerwas) writers who criticized bioethics for neglecting the ethical significance of specific clinical virtues, such as caring for persons in concrete human relationships.

Threats to Individuality

On the matter of soul, critics wonder why could God not give each person, identical twin or clone, an individual soul. Consider when the soul is supposed to be implanted in an individual. Some medieval writers, for example, held that the soul appeared or was implanted in the fetus when it had developed sufficiently so that it was fit for a human soul. Previous to that point, some held, the developing fetus had a vegetable and then an animal soul. Aristotle held that the soul or psyche was simply the form of the being, that which gave it unity as a particular living being, whether it be a plant or animal or person. Like any living human being, a cloned human being would on this view be a distinct being and so would have a human psyche or soul.

Remedies and Safeguards

Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health require extensive disclosure of all advisers' commercial interests. Some professional journals demand that authors and reviewers disclose any commercial relationships that might be construed as creating conflicts of interest. According to this view, conflicts of interest should not automatically disqualify a reviewer or author, but the revelation will allow readers, editors, and administrators to scrutinize conclusions more carefully (Koshland). Other publications have adopted somewhat more stringent guidelines. The New England Journal ofMedicine, for example, has required that authors disclose their financial conflicts, that its editors have no financial interest in any business related to clinical medicine, and that authors of review articles and editorials have no financial connection to their topics (Relman). The Journal was later forced to admit, however, that many of its authors of review articles had...

Abby Wyckoff Food Stylist

Contributions are worthy of special mention. Jennifer K. Nelson, R.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., and Robert A. Rizza, M.D., developed the material in Chapters 1 through 5. Kristine A. Kuhnert, R.D., contributed to Chapters 1 through 5 and served as project manager. Judith M. Ashley, Ph.D., R.D., provided the original draft for all of Part II (except the chapters on fruits and vegetables). Sydne J. Newberry, Ph.D., contributed to Chapters 1 and 2 and was the editor and major writer for the fruits and vegetables chapters. Dr. Rizza oversaw the entire process and served as one of the Editors-in-Chief. Other Editors-in-Chief were Vay Liang W. Go., M.D., M. Molly McMahon, M.D., and Gail G. Harrison, Ph.D., R.D.

Goals and Skills Required

The main aim of a technical writer is to communicate scientific and technical information to other people using easily understandable language. To be a technical writer, a person needs strong language skills, demonstrated by college-level training. A college degree in English, journalism, or communication is preferred, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. The Specially trained people began to be employed as technical writers in the late 1930s. Prior to the 1980s, however, most technical documents still were written by scientists, engineers, and other specialists, many of whom found it difficult to write for nontechnical audiences. With the rapid expansion of science and technology, however, the need increased for people who could both understand complex ideas and convey them effectively to a variety of audiences.

Challenges Advantages and Drawbacks

Some challenges need to be considered when thinking about a career as a technical writer. For example, a person may have to invest considerable time and money to acquire the knowledge and skills needed. Also, it can be difficult to gain entry-level experience. Technical writing is typically a sedentary profession that does not involve travel. At the same time, it is a demanding profession that can take time and energy away from other, more creative writing pursuits. Working for a company with an established set of document guidelines can be frustrating, and the profession is sometimes criticized for being dry and unimaginative. Generally, however, the outlook for technical writers is bright. Technical writing is a job growth area More jobs are being created than are being filled, particularly in the high technology industry. Once employed, a technical writer works on a wide variety of projects, many of which represent the cutting edge of science and technology. The field is supportive...

Knowledge Of Results Principle See Learning Theorieslaws

The English writer Arthur Koestler (1905-1983) speculated that the ancient Greeks' humorous attitude toward the stammering barbarian - much like the primitive person's laughter over a dying animal's anguished kicking and convulsing that presumably (in the savage's perception) pretends to suffer pain - may be inspired by the conviction that the foreigner is not really human but only pretends to be. Koestler's theory of humor laughter suggests that as laughter emerged from the ancient primitive form of humor, it was so aggressive that it has been likened to a dagger. In ancient Greece, the dagger was transformed into a pen quill -dripping with poison at first and then diluted and infused later with amusing lyrical and fanciful elements. Koestler notes that the fifth century B.C. saw the first rise of humor into art, starting with parodies of Olympian heroics and reaching a peak in the comedies of Aristophanes. According to Koestler, from this point...

An episodic chaotic mechanism

Like many other matters, the depth of the origin of hot spots is an object of debate (Fig. 5.5). Here I defend the idea of a deep initial origin (see Chapter 7). But others prefer an intermediary origin or even, like Don Anderson (who admittedly belongs to a small minority), argue for a shallow origin just under the lithosphere. But at any rate, plumes are fascinating geodynamic objects. I believe they are born from the instability of a deep boundary layer - 670 km down at least, and perhaps as deep as 2900 km (see Fig. 5.5) - and are essentially random. And so they are immediately reminiscent of the so-called intermittent regime suggested by writers on chaos theory.10 The appearance of plumes at the surface in the form of traps would, therefore, be an unpredictable event.

Frustration Theory See Amsels Hypothesistheory

This generalized formulation, called the square root law in the area of psychophysics, is credited to the American psychologists George Stuart Fullerton (1859-1925) and James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944), and states that the error of observation and least noticeable difference, or just noticeable difference (JND), are proportional to the square root of the value of the stimulus rather than to the stimulus value itself. Thus, in a psychophysical experiment, the error of a participant's observation is seen to increase with the square root of the intensity of the stimulus that is being administered. The Fullerton-Cattell law of 1892 was proposed as a substitute for Ernst Weber's earlier law of 1834 on the basis that one's observation errors may more validly be viewed as psychological processes (involving confidence in judgments and guessing responses) than as the results of the classical introspective methodology (i.e., looking into one's own experience and reporting...

Arguments from Side Effects

Of course, doctors have been in attendance at executions carried out by other methods, and some of the moral objections to their involvement are applicable no matter which method is used. What is different about intravenous injection, in the opinion of some writers (e.g., Curran and Cassells), is that it involves the direct application of biomedical knowledge for the taking of life. This practice is often said to be in violation of the Hippocratic Oath (Committee on Bioethical Issues of the Medical Society of the State of

Clinical Presentation

Dystonia may be primary or secondary in etiology. The primary dystonias are often associated with genetic changes and are now grouped under the term primary torsion dystonia. Familial and population studies of allele carriers demonstrate a wide range of symptoms ranging from generalized (affecting the entire body) to focal (confined to one body part). Focal dystonias involve the head (cranial dystonia), neck (cervical dys-tonia), or limb. The most common form of limb dysto-nia is writer's cramp, a task-specific dystonia. The presentation of a subject with idiopathic dystonia is highly variable, usually begins as a focal dystonia of the legs, and is initially present with action, such as walking. In adult-onset limb dystonia, the dystonia usually remains confined to the originally affected location. However, an initial presentation in a patient younger than age 18 or with bilateral lower extremity onset is usually associated with progression to generalized dystonia. Limb dystonia...

Fechners Colors See Fechners Law

The case had the stimulus intensity itself been diminished proportionately and the parallel law - Fechner's assertion that when two stimuli of different intensity are presented for a period of time, although through adaptation the apparent magnitude of each will lessen, the ratio of their apparent magnitudes will remain the same. Fechner advanced the field of psychophysics by systematizing three methods average error - where a mean represents the best approximation of a large number of measures constant stimuli - determines the amount of difference in stimulation needed to indicate a sensory difference and limits - determines the thresholds of sensory stimulations (also called just noticeable differences or JND). Although the German physi-ologist psychophysicist Ernst Weber's (17951878) investigations using the JND method preceded Fechner's work, Fechner's contribution is based in his mathematical statement of the relationship between the mental and the physical domains. Apparently,...

History A Early Concepts Myths

Early references suggest that Hippocrates was aware of the condition now described as hydrocephalus. In 1768, Whytt published Observations on the Dropsy in the Brain,'' in which he cited other writers as far back as the 13th century. Numerous herbal remedies were recommended in those times, though success rates were described as very low. Other treatments included head binding, leeching or bloodletting, injection of strong iodine solution into the ventricles, and exposure to the sun.

Mind Blindness Theory

Which the data are psychic activities, usually of a subject upon an object cf., F. Brentano's idiogenetic theory, which holds that the function of judgment is an original or primordial mental fact and A. E. Jones' non-common effects principle - states that the disposition of intention begun by an action is most readily seen by acknowledging the non-common consequences of alternative actions the fewer non-common effects of the action and alternative actions, the more readily an attribution of intention of disposition may be made and the theory of immaterialism - maintains that the existence of matter cannot be affirmed confidently inasmuch as all perceptual experiences are aspects of consciousness. There is general agreement by writers that body refers to the material, physical, or physiological characteristics of the organism and such activities can be studied by the traditional empirical methods of science. However, the mind, psyche, or soul entity of the mind-body problem presents...

Hedonism Theorylaw Of

(1904-1990) developed the principle of reinforcement,, in which hedonic expression, also, is found. H. Warren elevated the theoretical status of hedonic doctrine somewhat by his references to hedonic law. Other writers in psychology refer to pleasure-pain theories, pleasure principle, law of pleasure, law of pleasure-pain, and doctrine of pleasure-pain. J. M. Baldwin refers to this concept as Aristotle 's theory of pleasure-pain. M. Maher gives an historical perspective and progression of theories of pleasure-pain, but he also describes the laws of pleasure-pain. According to Maher, other laws that are subsidiary to the pleasure laws are the law of change (concerns the relativity of pleasures), the law of accommodation (pleasures may become habituated), and the law of repetition (diminished pleasures may be revitalized). Maher represents an interesting turn-of-the-20th-century amalgam of the disciplines of philosophy and psychology concerning the doctrine of hedonism. See also EFFECT,...

Asch Conformity Effect

The once versatile term assimilation appears largely to be obsolete, as judged by its infrequent use by writers of psychology textbooks today, although it does find modern resuscitation in terms such as generalization and analogy. The law of assimilation states that when an individual is in a new situation, he will behave in a way that is similar to the way he did in similar circumstances in the past (cf., assimilation effect - as shift in judgment toward an anchor, or reference standard, after it is introduced in a study). R. Woodworth and H. Schlosberg consider the term assimilation to be under the rubric of theory rather than of law. C. Hovland, however, refers to the law of assimilation. J. Piaget employs the term assimilation as a working descriptive term in his study of the development of intellectual competence in children, where assimilation is a functional mechanism that preserves cognitive structure and promotes integration and similarity between the...

Elimination By Aspects Theory

This biologically-based theory is stated by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) as follows I n the germ of every living creature the future adult exists and within this exist the immeasurably more minute forms of adults which will eventually descend from it, and so on ad infinitum (Spencer, 1892, p. 655). The term emboitement, ac-cording to Webster's 1986 unabridged dictionary is defined as encasement to put into a box encase fit together. Although it does have a certain intuitive appeal (much like the theory of recapitulation), as a theory in psychology the notion of emboitement appears to be somewhat archaic and is mentioned only infrequently by authors of psychology textbooks. For example, in a study that sampled 136 textbooks published from 1885 to 1996 (Roeckelein, 1996), only one writer (Spencer,

Association Lawsprinciples Of

Guity, similarity, and contrast), the principle of contiguity was the most popular among the early writers, including Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Hartley, J. Mill, J. S. Mill, Bain, and Spencer. At one time the notion of association was characterized as mental mechanics (James Mill) and mental chemistry (J. S. Mill), in which simple ideas could be linked to form more complex ideas. The decomposition of mental life into elements (simple ideas) and the compounding of these elements to form complex ideas subsequently formed the core of the new scientific psychology. Historically, it is noteworthy also, in the advancement of associationism, to take account of the systematic research based on asso-ciationistic principles that was conducted by Hermann von Ebbinghaus (1850-1909), Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), and Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949). Ebbinghaus constructed lists of nonsense syllables as learning material and used himself over many years as participant subject ( n 1 ) in...

Discourse Production

Narrative production requires that the speaker (or writer) produce a sequence of sentences that is coherent and comprehensible to the conversational partner (or the reader). The speaker has to be able to keep in mind what has already been stated and what remains to be stated and have some plan regarding the order in which information should be presented. Thus, in order to study narrative, measures beyond those of the individual phrase or sentence must be used in order to determine whether speakers are producing coherent narratives. Measures such as the overlap in propositions between utterances and the use of appropriate anaphors have been employed. Researchers may elicit target narratives by having the subjects view pictures or films and then asking the subject to tell the story of what happened. In such cases, the subjects' production can be assessed regarding whether the major elements of the story are present (such as introduction of people and situation, discussion of sequence of...

Nature of APCs for MLRs

For sensitized T cells responding to MHC alloanti-gens, a number of different cell types such as macrophages (Ms), dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells express APC function. Which of these cell types have APC function for unprimed T cells is controversial. One school of thought holds that unprimed T cells can be stimulated by only one type of cell, namely DCs. Others argue that, although DCs do express extremely potent APC function for unprimed T cells, significant APC function can also be provided by M

Diagnostic Or Prognostic Specificity

The question has been raised whether dreams can be used diagnostically or prognostically. Whereas one can learn much about a person's personality by submitting a number of the person's consecutive dreams for careful study using a configurational approach (to the manifest content), there seems to be some agreement that dreams can neither diagnose a patient nor predict an accurate prognosis. Disturbed dreams can be produced by normal individuals and healthy dreams by disturbed individuals. Every type of possible dream can occur in any nosological category. Therapists shy away from risking a diagnosis on the strengths and weaknesses of a person based on a dream protocol. Those writers on specific nosological categories have pointed out some general clinical findings (e.g., fear of intimacy and sense of alienation in borderline and schizophrenic patients), but clearly distinguishable specific diagnostic signs do not seem to be recognizable.

Religion And Morality

When this commonplace assumption about the connection between religion and morality is subjected to examination, however, problems emerge. Although moral virtues and behaviors characteristic of Christian love or Buddhist compassion may be clearly associated with a specific religion, the human possibilities they describe are often familiar and admired, even among those who do not share the religious beliefs. Persons outside of a community of faith may display its characteristic virtues, and those who reject a particular religion may realize its moral ideals better than most of its adherents. For example, Christian writers often turn to Gandhi as the modern model of the love that Jesus preached, while Gandhi valued the life of Jesus as an example of the harmlessness he sought to encourage. This recognition of specific moral virtues in persons outside the community of belief in which those virtues are defined and taught is so common today as to be unremarkable, but it challenges the...

Scope For Future Research

In this writer's opinion our greatest future attention must be in the area of education and communication. Correct and reliable information, free of political pressure or competitive fears, must be disseminated to enable the consumer to make informed, independent choices and industry to make responsible decisions.

Inheritable Genetic Modifications

In the early debates about germline interventions most writers viewed GLGT and GLGE as methods for transferring genes to human germs cells such as sperm, ova, and zygotes or to human germ tissues such as the testes and ovaries. A human germline intervention would be similar to a genetic engineering experiment in a mammal in that it would attempt to transfer a gene into the DNA in the chromosomes in the cell nucleus. Writers on both sides of the GLGT debate agreed that random gene insertion would be an extremely risky procedure and that targeted gene replacement (TGR) would pose the fewest risks to progeny (Resnik, Steinkraus, and Langer). As these developments unfolded, scholars discussed ethical and policy issues related to NT, OT, and artificial chromosomes (McGee Bonnickson Pence Robertson, 1998 Stock and Campbell Parens and Juengst Davis). Some writers suggested that it would be useful to develop a typology for different interventions in the human germline to allow a distinction...

Applications And Exclusions

The clinical indications and contraindications for existential approaches have not been systematically established. Historically, existential therapy was developed in work with psychotic patients. Binswanger, Minkowski, and Boss, in their seminal descriptions of existential work, presented patients who suffered from persistent and very troubling delusions and hallucinations. Recent writers in the existentialist tradition have tended to agree that such empathic, presupposition-less approaches are particularly suited to engaging and helping patients who are psychotic. If so, it may be because emotional involvement and expression by the therapist can help her to connect with patients who are emotionally withdrawn or who fear and avoid such contact.

Behavioral Genetics and Eugenics Some Ethical Guidelines

There are considerations of justice and the protection of fair equality of opportunity that are relevant to this discussion. Some writers (Silver) fear that differences in wealth will permit the rich to purchase a superior genetic endowment, especially with regard to valued behavioral traits, for their children, establishing permanently superior genetic castes. However, this is a plausible concern only extremely far into the future, if ever.

Goldsteins Organismic Theory

The German-American neu-ropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965) was the leading exponent of organismic theory (cf., organismic model - in developmental psychology, an approach which holds that the cognitive organization of the child is influenced by the same adaptive factors that account for the evolution of physical bodily forms), even though there had been previous advocates (including writers and philosophers such as Aristotle, Goethe, Spinoza, and William James) of the organismic approach (i.e., treating the organism as a unified, organized whole rather than atomizing the individual into elementary particles of feelings, images, and sensations). The holistic organismic viewpoint has appeared in studies in the fields of psychobiology, psychosomatics, developmenttal biology, neurology, physiology, philosophy, and psychology. Organismic psychology may be regarded as the extension of Gestalt principles to the organism as a whole. The central features of organismic...

Food Labelling Agenda

FLAG (Food Labelling Agenda) is a national consumer pressure organisation launched in June 1997 by a group of concerned food and health writers. The organisation campaigns for 'clear, comprehensive and meaningful labelling on all food and food products' and its first task in March 1998 was to deliver a petition calling for improved food labelling to Downing Street. It won support from a huge number of individuals and organisations, including those with interests in allergy, genetic engineering, infant feeding, heart disease, cancer, vegetarianism, eating disorders and green issues. The accurate labelling of potential allergens is one of FLAG's major concerns. The organisation is steered by Michelle Berriedale-Johnson and Sarah Stacey and their postal address is PO Box 25303, London NW5 1WN. A newsletter is produced for supporters.

Tolstoy Leo Nikolayevich

Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian aristocrat, novelist, and writer. Like Mohandas Gandhi,* he was deeply committed to the principle of nonviolence, which he also extended to the animal world. He translated Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet into Russian with an accompanying essay ''The First Step'' (1892), in which he commends vegetarianism* as a step toward achieving the moral perfection required by Christ's teaching as illustrated by the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy corresponded with the Humanitarian League and eventually became a member. Although he was influenced by Orthodox spirituality, he was deeply critical of the established Orthodox Church, complaining that it legitimized violence and cruelty. His many novels illustrate the need for a spiritual life inclusive of respect for animals nowhere is this more powerfully stated than in the opening section of Resurrection (1904), where humans are pictured in their own physical and moral prison, unable to grasp that...

Bioethics of Failure Antiheroic Cancer Narratives

In this chapter I problematize a particular mode of being ill and writing about being ill that attempts to reverse or revise the crisis of illness by describing a sort of heroism in the face of such a crisis. This heroic art of existence1 is, perhaps not surprisingly, quite common in illness narratives, as individuals who are ill attempt to exert a measure of control over their illness as well as the corresponding stories. In order to challenge and or supplement the heroic mode of being ill, I discuss two recent narratives about the experience of ovarian cancer Jackie Stacey's Teratologies A Cultural Study of Cancer (1997) and Gillian Rose's Love's Work A Reckoning with Life (1995). Both authors are British academics, and their accounts of illness represent journeys into uncharted narrative territories, although both writers also draw heavily from the theory and methods of their particular fields of study Stacey from feminist theory and British cultural studies, and Rose from...

Upward Pygmalion Effect

This principle is one of the corollaries of the American psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike's (1874-1949) law of exercise, which states that behaviors, stimulus-response connections, and functions that are exercised, rehearsed, or practiced are strengthened as compared to those behaviors, bonds, or functions that are not used. Some early writers held that the repeated use of a stimulus-response connection unit (neurons) bring about certain synaptic changes that made the passage of the nerve impulse more rapid in the future. For example, in 1926 A. Gates called this native capacity of nervous structure modifiability the law of modification by exercise or, more simply, the law of use cf., the use disuse, use-inheritance theory advanced by the French naturalist evolutionist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamarck (1744-1829), which holds that the structural or functional changes in organs brought about by their use or disuse are passed onto the progeny). The notion of a...

Schematic Change Potential

By compensating particular EMS, Young states that the individual can overcome the EMS and replace it or them with healthier schemas (reconstruction). We would argue that the manner in which the schemas are addressed is what makes them maladaptive. For example, a child in grade school may be in constant trouble for demanding attention. The difficulty would be subsumed under what Young labels insufficient limits. The student might call out in class, fool around, and generally make a nuisance of him- or herself. The schemas, It is important to be noticed, Public recognition helps me to build self-esteem, or To be noticed is to be liked loved respected, all may contribute to a less than successful school career. The same schemas may later contribute to a successful professional career as a teacher or writer wherein the schemas have been used adaptively. The maladaptive expression of those same schemas would be for the individual to be the world's greatest failure, or a front-page criminal.

In which areas is knowledge very limited or highly contested

First, there are diverse views about the nature of knowledge and about how to access and use it. The power which people can exercise through thinking and communication also occupies many writers, who take positions ranging from various forms of elitism (intellectual, sociocultural or spiritual) to an egalitarian concern for human rights. There are also distinct moral and ethical belief systems - with some writers taking a pragmatic, technological view about the possible social and economic benefits of improved thinking some espousing the values of a liberal-humanistic tradition and others having a strong belief in rationalism.

Color Vision Theorieslaws

And yellowish (about 580 nm) and the longer wavelengths as reddish (about 700 nm). The term chromatic refers to stimuli that have all three of these aspects (and have color), whereas the term achromatic refers to stimuli that have only the brightness aspect (and are white-gray-black ). Typically, the better theories of color vision can account for several phenomena the primary colors ( unique hues ) of blue, green, yellow, and red the complementary colors (i.e., any of the colors that are opposite to each other on the color wheel and when additively mixed produce an achromatic gray) and their influence in afterimages and contrast effects the laws of color mixture and the different symptoms of various types of color blindness e.g., pro-tanopes, deuteranopes, tritanopes cf., Horner's law - named after the Swiss ophthalmologist Johann Friedrich Horner (1831-1886), which is the genetic principle that the most common form of color blindness, red-green, is transmitted from male to male...

Confirmation Paradox See Null Hypothesis

The realistic conflict theory also suggests that as such competition persists, the members of the groups involved come to view each other in increasingly negative ways, much as indicated in the image theories. The concept of conflict has been invoked, also, in the history of psychology by the German philosopher educator Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841). Based on the popular assumption that elementary bits of ideas or experiences may combine harmoniously into wholes, Herbart taught that ideas themselves may come into relation with each other through conflict or struggle, as well. Thus, according to Herbart, ideas that are incapable of combining tend to compete with one another, and this competition occurs in order to gain a place in consciousness. Recent writers, including the psychoanalysts, emphasize that objects of thought do not conflict with each other because they are in logical opposition, as Herbart proposed, but because they lead to divergent...

The History of Diverticular Disease

In 1927, Spriggs and Marxer suggested that the term 'diverticulum' originated from the word 'divertikel' which was said to have been used by Fleischman in 1815 in describing this anomaly in the colon. Between 1815 and 1869 many writers of medical articles were stating that they all believed that these 'divertikel' were not nascent but acquired later in life - thought to be caused by constipation. Even at this early stage in medical history, it was recognized that a fistula could be one of the associated complications of diverticular disease (Jones, 1859).

Continutity Theory Hull Spence

The American psychologist and neo-Hullian theorist Kenneth W. Spence (1907-1967) formulated a theory of discrimination learning, known as continuity theory, that was developed against an elaborate theoretical foundation established by Clark L. Hull (1884-1952). The interconnection of Spence's theory with Hull's framework led some writers to label Spence's theory the Hull-Spence theory of discrimination. In the typical discrimination paradigm, the participant is reinforced positively for responding in the presence of one stimulus ( positive stimulus) and not reinforced in the presence of another stimulus ( negative stimulus). With differential training, the individual comes to respond promptly to the positive stimulus, but not to the negative stimulus (cf., overlearning reversal effect - refers to an experimental result in a discrimination-learning task situation where organisms who had learned that a primary cue was to be avoided found it easier to shift to a new...

Contract Research Organizations CROs

Investigators and initiates and monitors some portion of the study sites, (2) CRO X initiates and monitors the remainder of the sites, (3) CRO Y is responsible for clinical data management, (4) an independent contract statistician carries out data analysis, and (5) a freelance medical writer writes the clinical report. Unbundling, by contracting out only where a truly complementary role for the CRO exists, can be the most cost-effective approach for the sponsor. However, this benefit may be offset by the complexities, cost, and risk of managing multiple vendors.

Early Greek And Later Philosophical Theories Of Time

Portant theoretical theme in Aquinas' writings involving the notion of time is a divine eternity or timelessness he interpreted the Biblical opposition between time and eternity in terms of its elaboration by neo-Platonic writers, notably St. Augustine (354-430). The last of the Scholastic philosophers, Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), made a distinction between physical time that measures the motions of the heavens, and spiritual discrete time that is composed of the indivisible, successive instants of change in the intellections and volitions of the angels, and is measured by the thought of the Supreme Angel. Suarez suggested that the seemingly successive parts of an action, and hence their real duration, may be conceived as a whole in a form that is nonsuccessive he also considered the idea of time as a sort of space flowing from eternity as purely imaginary, and the location of a given duration in such a space as a purely mental act. However, Suarez did not seem to grasp the radical...

In Defense of Current Animal Experimentation

It also has been said by writers as diverse as Thomas Aquinas and Immanuel Kant that animals are not ends in themselves or that they have no rights (Regan and Singer). In support of this idea it is alleged that the status of a being who is an end in itself or has rights belongs only to a being who is rational, is capable of autonomous action, or is a moral agent. This position attempts to equate the universe of moral agents those to whom moral judgments or prescriptions can sensibly be addressed with the universe of moral patients those about whom it matters, morally, what people do. One possible justification for this equation would be a social contract model of ethics We have a moral obligation to respect the rights or interests only of those who can reciprocate respect for their rights or interests (Gauthier Carruthers). This position, however, does not provide any grounds for distinguishing between nonhuman animals, on the one hand, and infants and the profoundly intellectually...

Cognitive Style Models

The behaviorists (cf., however, the current COPE model - a behavioral-cognitive strategy, standing for control-organize-plan-execute, often used in sports psychology, for dealing with a performer's anxiety, which focuses on controlling emotions, organizing input, planning for the next action response, and execution of the action response). Between the 1920s and the 1950s, the topic of emotion seems to have been abandoned in psychology. By the 1950s and 1960s, however, theorists began to return to the intuitive idea that a situation must be interpreted in some way before it can instigate an emotion. Magda Arnold (1954) introduced the concept of appraisal into academic psychology where emotion was defined as a felt action tendency toward things that are intuitively appraised as good for oneself or away from things that are appraised as bad, and where a pattern of physiological changes is organized around particular types of approach or withdrawal. It is interesting to note how some of...

Therapy versus Enhancement

Many of the writers, clinicians, and scientists who defended genetic therapy also had moral qualms about genetic enhancement. In genetic enhancement the goal of the intervention is not to treat or prevent a disease but to achieve another result, such as increased height, intelligence, disease resistance, or musical ability. Thus, according to many authors, there is a moral distinction between genetic therapy, which is morally acceptable, and genetic enhancement, which is morally unacceptable or questionable (Suzuki and Knudtson Anderson, 1989 Berger and Gert). Until society achieves a moral consensus on genetic enhancement, HGE protocols should not attempt to enhance human beings genetically. as autonomy, beneficence, and justice (Resnik and Langer). Some writers who criticize the distinction nevertheless maintain that it may be useful in setting an agenda for policy discussions or for raising moral warning flags (Buchanan et al.).

Entering the Profession

In addition, technical writing is a profession that pays well. According to a 2000 salary survey by the Society for Technical Communication, the average salary for a technical writer in the United States. is about 52,000. An entry-level technical writer makes about 37,000, which compares favorably with entry-level positions in other fields. The average salary for a seniorlevel technical writer with supervisory responsibilities is about 65,000. Salary level also depends on geographic location, level of education, and years of experience in the technical writing field. People interested in seeking employment as technical writers should pursue volunteer and internship opportunities, develop a portfolio of their work to show potential employers, check classified advertisements and company Web sites for job openings, write directly to personnel departments, and or sign up with a job placement agency that specializes in information technology. see also Science Writer.

The Model of Prohibition

Jurisdictions whose laws reflect the model of prohibition often assert a strong religious or humanitarian policy interest in protecting what are thought to be the rights and interests of unborn children. However, other objectives have also prompted strict abortion prohibition. For example, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, abortion opponents in the United States cited the need to protect pregnant women from the medical and psychological risks of abortion. There can be no doubt that unskilled, unsanitary abortion procedures are a health risk, and that some women who obtain abortion services experience medical complications and emotional anguish. However, some lawyers and judges doubt that medical abortion performed during the first three months of pregnancy is less safe than pregnancy and childbirth (Tribe Rhode). They similarly doubt that elective medical abortion poses a serious risk of psychological harm. Although one writer has concluded that every woman pays a...

Sharing Genetic Information

When a test has been performed and a result has been obtained, other considerations come into play. Perhaps the most vexing is whether and when a person has a moral duty to share genetic information. Genetic test results for a specific individual also reveal information about that person's relatives. Parents and children share half their genes, as do siblings. If a woman learns that she carries a gene associated with breast cancer, does she have a responsibility to share that information with her sister Many writers agree that that responsibility exists, with Dorothy Wertz and colleagues suggesting that at the level of the person genetic information, although individual, should be shared among family members as a form of shared familial property (Wertz et al.). Indeed, most people, once they are aware of the implications of genetic information for other family members, willingly share the information with those for whom it is especially relevant.

Granular Theory See Life Theories Of

The theoretical relationship between the features of one's handwriting and his her personality or character has been studied extensively in modern times by the French abbot Jean Hippolyte Michon (1806-1881) and by the German philosopher psychologist Ludwig Klages (1872-1956). Based on analyses of the characteristics and variables in personal handwriting - such as modulations in size of letters, layout, connectedness, slant, regularity, speed, forms, shading, and angularity - graphologists (those who analyze the physical features and patterns of handwriting and who formulate graphology theory) have speculated on persons' traits, qualities, and attributes. Some graphologists use the analytic approach, in which relatively isolated aspects of the handwriting (e.g., curvature, angularity, width, slant of individual letters) are presumed indicators of specific personality traits of the writer. Other graphologists assert that personality characteristics are reflected...

The Moral Status of the Early Embryo

In the late twentieth century, scholars were faced with biological data about early embryonic development that led to new perspectives on the ontological and moral status of the early embryo. Particularly within the Catholic tradition, writers such as Norman Ford, John Mahoney, Richard McCormick, and Karl Rahner developed arguments questioning whether the zygote or early embryo is a full human being or human person. Their arguments appealed to the following points

Jungs Theory Of Personality

Tion, self-actualization, and unity, and is expressed in the symbols of the mandala and the circle. According to Jung, the well-adjusted person is one who seeks a compromise between the demands of the collective unconscious and the actualities of the external world. Jung also distinguishes between the extraversion attitude - orientation of the person toward the external objective world, and the introversion attitude - orientation of the person toward the internal subjective world. He describes four fundamental psychological types functions styles thinking (ideational), feeling (evaluative), sensing (perceptual), and intuiting (unconscious or subliminal) aspects of processing information in the world cf., the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - developed in 1943 and named after the American writer Isabel M. Myers (1897-1980) and her mother, the self-taught American psychologist Katharine E. Briggs (1875-1968), designed to implement measure Jung's theory of functional types cf., clouding...

Emotions Theorieslaws Of

Tional state), but seem in normally functioning individuals to be dependent on specific situations and are tied to one's particular personal perception and meaning. The difficulty in studying emotions is due to a number of causes and problems, prominent among which is the pervasive tendency by investigators to separate emotion from cognition or rational thought processes (cf., the aha experience effect - an emotional response that occurs, typically, at the moment of sudden insight, generally following a long and tedious process of problem-solving in psychotherapy, it is the sudden insight one has into one's unconscious motives). The physiological and psychological processes involved in emotion are most likely interrelated, and separation by theorists of emotion from these other aspects of experience may not be productive rather, integration of the psychological and physiological realms in the study of emotions is a desideratum. It is interesting to note that recently, in only 30 years...

Mental Laws Of Association

Stimulus to be adequate to enhance or increase an individual's liking or positive attitude towards it. In Zajonc's study, pairs of antonyms were examined, and it was found that positively-toned words were more frequent in the language according to word counts than were negatively-toned words (e.g., the English word beauty occurs 41 times more frequently than does the word ugly ). In investigations of other non-English languages, Za-jonc also found that there are direct relationships between exposure frequency and rated favorability of words in languages such as German, French, Russian, and Spanish cf., the Pollyanna effect named by the American psychologist Charles E. Osgood (1916-1991) in the 1960s, in honor of the overly-optimistic character Pollyanna Whittier in American writer Eleanor H. Porter's (1868-1920) novels in the early 1900s - refers to a tendency for individuals to pay more attention to positive than negative aspects or conceptual terms in their speech and thoughts, and...

Organismic Theorymodel

Created, where the following criteria may be applied there must be coordination of personnel effort, personnel must have some set of common goals or purposes, there has to be some division of labor within the larger structure, and there has to be some degree of integrated functioning, including a hierarchy of authority. The area called systems theory emphasizes the interaction and interrelated nature of behavior (cf., ego-alter theory, which attempts to account for the origin or existence of social organizations in terms of innate egoism or altruism and open systems theory which holds that an organization may be viewed as an open system where it imports energy via hiring and transforms energy via making products) according to systems theory, an individual's behavior does not occur in a vacuum but rather is influenced by, and in turn influences, the environment in which it occurs cf., chaos theory (also known as nonlinear dynamical systems theory) described by the American science...

Fleshing Out the Abject Body

Women writers have for many years described the way in which their bodies are seen as abject in the sense of being more biological, sexual, Other writers have identified concepts of selfhood that also differ from the mainstream, and that involve recognition of body boundaries that do not involve the strictly defined and anxiously maintained borders of the liberal male subject. An example is Isabel Karpin's reimagining of maternal selfhood, which examines the way that the mother-fetus relationship is understood in terms of an antagonistic self-other distinction and suggests a more complex nexus-of-relations (Karpin 1994).

Two Key Distinctions and Four Basic Categories

After the first SGT experiments began, many writers made the case for crossing the line between somatic therapy and germline therapy (Zimmerman Berger and Gert Munson and Davis). Those writers argued that some germline interventions are morally justifiable because they promote medical goals such as disease prevention and the relief of suffering. Most of the approximately 5,000 known genetic diseases cause disabilities, premature death, and suffering. Although couples often can use nongenetic methods such as prenatal genetic testing and preimplantation genetic testing to give birth to children without genetic diseases, for some diseases germline therapy offers the only hope of producing a healthy child who is genetically related to the couple. For example, if a male and a female are both homozygous for a recessive genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis (CF), the only way they can produce a healthy child is to use gene transfer techniques to create embryos with normal genes (Resnik and...

Ludovicis Theory Of Laughter

The outspoken English-born writer, Nietzschean philosopher, and intellectual Anthony Mario Ludovici (1882-1971) - who once described himself as taking a fearless approach to the truth - provides a new theory of laughter in which the roots of laughter are seen to lie in the triumph one attains over other people or circumstances. Such an idea-tional theoretical basis for humor laughter is included in a genre called superiority theories of humor. Ludovici maintains that laughter may be traced back to the snarls of triumph or mocking behavior that early humans made over a defeated adversary, and describes why assertion of superiority takes this particular form in behavior. Ludovici asserts that in the specific act of the baring of the teeth -where this behavior evolutionarily carried the function and nonverbal message in primitive humans and animals of warding off an enemy or establishing dominance - an interpretation may be made in modern humans that involves the notion of superior...

Minitheories Of Emotion

The issue of why a mirror - when we look into it - appears to reverse right and left, but not up and down, has been debated ever since the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 427-347 B.C.) answered it incorrectly in the 4th century B.C. More recently, explanations for the mirror-reversal effect have been proposed by the American science-writer Martin Gardner (1914- ) and the English psychologist Richard L. Gregory (1923- ). In the former case, Gardner suggests that because the image appears behind the mirror, the viewer performs a mental rotation of it, using the vertical axis of rotation however, this explanation is lacking because the operation of mental rotation under these conditions takes too much time to account for the experienced phenomenon. In the latter case, Gregory offers a seemingly more satisfying and correct solution to the issue a mirror doesn't reverse left and right or top and bottom, but in order to see the reflection of an object person,...

Existential Analysis Theory

The Swiss psychiatrist existentialist Ludwig Binswanger (1881-1966) developed this theoretical form of psychoanalysis in the 1930s that is based on the philosophical phenomen-ological movement called existentialism -advanced by the Danish philosopher Soren A. Kierkegaard (1813-1855), the German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), and the French philosopher writers Albert Camus (1913-1960), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), and Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) - which emphasizes the existence of the individual as a free entity burdened with personal responsibility (cf., the existentialist notion of bad faith - a form of self-deception in which individuals refuse to accept responsibility for their own freely chosen actions and depict themselves as the passive victims of worldly circumstance).

Gender and Religion

The male counterpart of the Earth Mother is the Christian God-the-Father who occupies the heavens and may mete out punishments for wrongdoings through Santiago, the Lightning Spirit (Mitchell, 1993) or other means. He too requires appeasing with ceremonies when his displeasure is expressed. This punishment seems to fit with the more prominent role in punishing children and women that men have, but the earth is also a stern taskmistress, not to be trifled with. The two deities do not seem to have much interaction, but complement each other with separate roles just as earthly men and women should do. It seems to this writer that the Earth Mother's role is more ubiquitous in country life than that of the male Father-God, a fitting parallel to the gendered division of human labor.

Oncology Legitimates an Experimental Procedure

Additional indication that many, if not most, oncologists viewed HDC ABMT as no longer experimental was provided in a series of letters obtained from the litigation of the 1990s. A Seattle law firm (Culp, Guterson, and Grader), in 1992, had solicited the opinions of oncologists across the country on the status of HDC ABMT.9 A careful reading indicates clearly that the opinions expressed established policies and practices. Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation wrote that the procedure was generally accepted medical practice in our community for the treatment of certain patients (McMillan 1992, p. 1). The University of Michigan Medical Center wrote Sufficient data has accumulated to make us believe that high dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation for metastatic breast cancer which remains sensitive to chemotherapy, is an effective therapy. This therapy is generally accepted medical practice in the State of Michigan and is one of a number of standard therapies for...

Aging and Societal Transformation

Donald Cowgill, the first to suggest a number of discrete postulates and later in developing a more elaborate model, has been the most dominant writer on this subject (Cowgill, 1974, 1986). The hypothesized decline in valued roles, resources, and respect available to older persons in modernizing societies is said to stem from four main factors modern health technology economies based on scientific technology urbanization and mass education and literacy. There has been a very lively debate over the validation of this model (see Rhoads & Holmes, 1995, pp. 251-285 for an excellent review). Historians in particular have sharply questioned the model, saying it is not only ahistorical but that, by idealizing the past, an inappropriate world we lost syndrome has been created (Kertzer & Laslett, 1994 Laslett, 1976). For example, summing up research on the elderly living in Western Europe several hundred years ago, historian Andrejs Plakans states, There is something...

Disease Patterns and Assumptions Unpacking Variables

A pediatrician predicts health status and lifespan from aspects of North American social status and identity a writer divines identity from manner of death. These opposite positions are actually based on the same premise that selfhood and mortality are intertwined. Both claims rest on the assumption that there are systematic connections between how people live and how they die.

Background and History Early Accounts of Drug

Before anthropology was a separate discipline, travelers, explorers, and scholars wrote accounts of how people lived in cultural settings different from their own. These chronicles became the first literature on intercultural variation, albeit often riddled with the writers' own prejudices and misinterpretations of what they had observed. Some of the early ethnographic writings contained descriptions of drug use.

Historical Development

Contraceptive and abortifacient drugs, as well as infanticide, were certainly used widely in the ancient world, not only to conceal sexual crimes but also to limit family size and conserve property. Early Christian authors such as Tertullian, Jerome, and Augustine in the Western church, and Clement of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, and Basil in the Eastern church, repudiated these practices. They did not, however, challenge their patriarchal social context, with its requirement that female sexuality serve the good of the family and its assumption that women seeking to avoid pregnancy were usually guilty of sexual infidelity. Local councils tended to support this stand. In 303 c.e., on the Iberian Peninsula, the Council of Elvira excluded from the church for the rest of her life any woman who had obtained an abortion after adultery. In 314, the Eastern church, at the Council of Ancyra (Ankara), reduced the period of penance to ten years, although it retained the lifetime ban for...

Early Protestant Views of Abortion

Martin Luther's and John Calvin's theological and moral reforms were shaped by their reconceptions of both the meaning of Christian life and Christian ritual practice. Neither could be said to have proposed shifts in the foundational notions of human nature embedded in late medieval Christianity. Traditional notions of human nature, including gender and human species reproduction, were not in dispute and did not shift at the time of the Reformation. What is notable among Protestant reformers is the paucity of comment on any questions about human sexuality and reproduction, including abortion. Martin Luther, a prolific preacher and writer, did not mention abortion at all. Had he done so, he likely would have presumed its moral wrongness because he was educated as an Augustinian monk and was learned in the available theological texts of the period, including especially Sentences by the twelfth-century theologian Peter Lombard, which contained collations of opinions on abortion by...

The Growth of Specialization

The fast pace of scientific and technological advance has led to an increasing demand for science writers who understand science, and who can make others understand it as well. The membership of the National Association of Science Writers is now nearly 2,500. Science writing programs have sprung up at Boston University, Northwestern University, the University of California in Santa Cruz, the University of Maryland, and many other institutions. Most of these programs are aimed at journalists who wish to learn how to write about science, to more deftly translate jargon, explain complex experiments, and illuminate the people and the politics behind the science. A few, such as the program at Santa Cruz, are geared for science majors who wish to learn about journalism.

The Food Quality System

A recent survey revealed that freshness is the most important quality consumers look at when purchasing refrigerated foods (7). In the writer's view, consumers associate freshness with quality, safety, and health. A USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) study (8) indicated that in 1995, 5.4 billion lb of food were lost at the retail level, and 91 billion lb were lost by consumers and food service. Fresh fruits and vegetables accounted for nearly 20 of consumer and food service losses. It was estimated that the

Reflex Arc Theoryconcept

French philosopher Rene Descartes (15961690), who also conducted physiological studies, was among the first writers to give a statement of the reflex theory of action animals (and humans) are considered to be mere machines and explained in mechanistic terms, where much of the organism's motor behavior is reflexive and not dependent on mind. However, it was the American philosopher and educator John Dewey (1859-1952) who formally adapted the physiologist's model of the reflex arc to the study of psychological action (cf., reflex act hypothesis - states that psychological acts follow the same general pattern as neurological reflexes, beginning with an external or internal source of stimulation, proceeding to a central regulatory system, and discharging through efferent channels and spinal conditioning hypothesis - the unsubstantiated notion that conditioned reflexes may be established via circuitry in the spinal cord that lack interconnections to central nervous system structures above...

Sex Differences in Psychopathology

One of the most serious problems associated with the understanding of sex differences in psychopathology is the problem of reporting bias. The DSM-IV frequently cautions that its epidemiological conclusions are based on analyses of individuals presenting themselves for help with certain problems. If men are as depressed as women, by and large, but are also much less willing to look for help with their depression, the observed reporting rates (more women reporting depression) would be biased, and they would not accurately reflect the fact of depression. The authors of the DSM-IV also recognize the importance of culture in the reporting of psychological problems. Culture is frequently mentioned in the segment on special features, as well as in Appendix I. The writers advise that it is important that the clinician take into account the individual's ethnic and cultural context in making a diagnosis (DSM-IV, p. 843). Diagnoses such as evil eye , ghost sickness , koro , and pibloktoq are...

Additional Reading

The natural history and treatment of acquired hemidystonia report of 33 cases and review of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002 72 59-67. Cohen LG, Hallett M, Sudarsky L. A single family with writer's cramp, essential tremor, and primary writing tremor. Mov Disord 1987 2 109-116. Brain 2002 125 695-721. Tarsy D. Comparison of acute- and delayed-onset posttraumatic cervical dystonia. Mov Disord 1998 13 481-485. Tsui JKC, Bhatt M, Calne S, Calne DB. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of writer's cramp a double-blind study. Neurology 1993 43 183-185.

Theoretical Bases

Some authors emphasize the role of self-monitoring of behavior and our awareness of choice points (e.g., what to do next), which they argue also involves self-evaluation of behavior. Research suggests that self-observation may alter behavior. When we observe our behavior, we attend to it more carefully and may identify and change cues and consequences that influence its frequency. Other writers emphasize the role of attributions (assumed causes for behavior) noting that research suggests that we can enhance maintenance of positive changes by emphasizing the control we have over our behavior (e.g., attributing self-change to our own efforts in contrast to viewing our behavior as under the control of environmental consequences over which we have little influence). Self-management skills that may be involved in self-change include the following

Pattern Theories Of Cutaneous Somatosensory Coding See NA

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES LAWS THEORIES. The Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (18491936) - note Pavlov's name was spelled in various ways (such as Pavloff, Pawlow, and Pavlow ) by some American writers in the 1920s and 1930s - was the first to explore extensively the characteristics of classical conditioning, even though he was not the first to discover the conditioned response (also called the conditional response, the conditioned reflex, and the conditional reflex). Aristotle's laws of association anticipated the principle of conditioning, the Scottish physiologist Robert Whytt (1714-1766) and J. A. Unzer (1727-1799) laid down the foundations for the doctrine of reflex action, and Whytt (1763) recognized psychic secretions over a century before Pavlov described them. The American psychologist Edwin Burket Twit-myer (1873-1943), in a doctoral dissertation in 1902 at the University of Pennsylvania, discovered the conditioned response (without actually using the term)...


The authors of any book always owe a debt of thanks to many people. Not in the slightly sycophantic way of the film awards, but in a very real sense, there truly are those without whom it would not have been possible to get the job done. The writers of this book are no exception and would like to say a public thank you to everyone who helped us along the way. To single anyone out always runs the risk of being divisive, but to omit a few particular individuals would be churlish in the extreme. We are particularly grateful to Lynne and David Lewis-Saunders for the use of our compact and bijou residence in the Dales, where so much of this book was written and to Linda Ormiston, OBE, for the loan of her coffee table, where most of the rest of it took shape.

Medieval Societies

In the Middle Ages, Christian writers took up these explanations and added a supernatural cause the Fall of Man. According to Saint Augustine, sickness, aging, and death were unknown in the Garden of Eden they entered the world after the sin ofAdam (Post). While Christian theology considered aging a punishment for original sin, medieval writers also envisioned the journey of life as a sacred pilgrimage to God and eternal judgment. Thus Christian writers fashioned a vision encompassing both physical decline and the possibility of spiritual ascent (Cole).

Nimal Senanayake

The ancient Hebrews regarded convulsive seizures and epilepsy as sacrosanct with religious, magical or divine causes, and called it morbus sacer, the 'sacred illness' or the 'holy illness'.3 This tradition persisted until the 17th century, though the effort to counter it with rational explanations also began very early. One of the Hippocratic writers in the fourth century B.C. denied that epilepsy was sacred in any sense, asserted that its seat was in the brain, and, as a humoralist, diagnosed its cause as an excess of phlegm in the brain rushing into the blood vessels of the body. Another writer in the same tradition ascribed seizures to a mixture of blood and air.4


Lettuce has been used in the kitchen for thousands of years. Hippocrates and other Greek writers discussed it, and the Romans were fond of it. Because of its proven sleep-inducing or soporific qualities, it was originally eaten at the end of a meal, but later also with vinegar at the beginning as an appetite stimulant. In the Middle Ages lettuce appears to have played a minor role in European cookery, at least before 1400. By the sixteenth century, however, it was used for raw salads across the Continent. Part of the resistance to eating raw lettuce came from the medical community, which classified lettuce as so extremely cold and moist in nature that it was believed to be capable of quenching a person's thirst and even extinguishing any feelings of lust.


Growing wild in Europe and western Asia, the parsnip has been cultivated since antiquity and was an integral part of the Roman diet. Up to the early modern period writers did not always make a distinction between parsnips and carrots. Sweet and starchy, the white parsnip was used in the Middle Ages as a substitute for honey and sugar, which were substantially more expensive. Easily stored for the winter in a cool place, or left in the ground until needed, it was an important vegetable, especially for the peasants.


Beginning science writers may earn a starting salary of around 20,000 to 25,000, depending on their training, the type of job, the resources of the employer, and the region of the country. More experienced writers may earn between 35,000 and 60,000, and some writers earn even more. The highest salaries are paid to top-tier writers employed by major publications, or experienced medical writers working for pharmaceutical companies. see also Technical Writer. Blum, Deborah, and Mary Knudson, eds. A Field Guide for Science Writers. New York Oxford University Press, 1998. Gastel, Barbara. The Health Writers Handbook. Ames Iowa State University Press, 1998. National Association of Science Writers. .


Bibliotherapy has been used to pursue a wide range of goals including educating clients, decreasing anxiety and depression, enhancing social contacts, and developing study skills. There are different kinds of bibliotherapy. One utilizes self-help materials designed to guide the client through assessment and or intervention in relation to hoped-for outcomes such as losing weight or developing more effective study behaviors. Another kind requests clients to read fictional materials or poetry to attain certain outcomes. Yet another encourages readers to read spiritual literature. Many different formats are used and Internet-based material is likely to increase in use. An advantage of bibliotherapy is allowing people to achieve desired changes on their own, although some writers point out that use of self-help manuals still ties consumers to therapists because therapy experts are often the authors. Potential positive effects of biblio-therapy include acquiring skills that can be applied...


Onset is typically in the first or second decade. Myoclonus is the most prominent feature, primarily affecting the arms, shoulders, neck, and trunk and less commonly affecting the face and legs. The myoclonic jerks can be triggered by voluntary movements (action myoclonus) and are particularly evident as overflow jerks (i.e., involving body regions not involved in the action per se). The myoclonic component may respond to alcohol. Dystonia, usually torticollis and or writer's cramp, occurs in some but not all affected patients and rarely is the only symptom of the disease. Psychiatric abnormalities, including panic attacks and obsessive-compulsive behavior, are frequently observed.


Other applications of EMG biofeedback are to reduce specific muscle activity in the treatment of tension headaches, back pain associated with skeletal muscle hyperactivity, and other conditions of inappropriate muscle activity such as writer's cramps. EMG biofeedback is also used to recruit muscle activity, to aid in the rehabilitation of muscle paresis resulting from injuries such as strokes.